KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering

, Volume 23, Issue 5, pp 2339–2348 | Cite as

Social Factors Influencing the Choice of Bicycle: Difference Analysis among Private Bike, Public Bike Sharing and Free-Floating Bike Sharing in Kunming, China

  • Xuefeng Li
  • Yong ZhangEmail author
  • Mingyang Du
  • Jingzong Yang
Transportation Engineering


The emergence of free-floating bike sharing (FFBS) has made essential changes in urban bicycle travel. In order to explore the differences of travel behavior among private bicycle (PB), public bicycle sharing (PBS) and FFBS, a survey was conducted in Kunming, China in 2018. Firstly, the differences of travel characteristics among these three modes were analyzed based on 522 valid questionnaires. Then, a multinomial logistic model was applied to explore the influential factors among them. The results show that: 1) PB and FFBS are more attractive for long-distance travel enthusiasts compared with PBS, PB is rarely used for transfer in suburbs while FFBS is the most desirable in connecting other travel modes. The theft problem and high maintenance costs are main obstacles for PB. 2) The elderly, high-income and non-student groups in inflexible travel activities show a preference for PBS, while the young, low-income and student groups in flexible travel demands have a tendency towards FFBS. 3) PB and PBS imped the use of FFBS to a certain extent, while PB seems to have less impact on PBS. 4) FFBS is desirable in temporary travel demand while PBS is more preferable in fixed demand. Interestingly, residents with registered permanent residence tend to use PBS while those without registered permanent residence prefer FFBS. Finally, several management strategies and policy recommendations were proposed for the government and FFBS enterprises to improve the management of bicycles.


travel characteristic differences preferences influential factors multinomial logistic model policy recommendations 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Ai, Y., Li, Z., Gan, M., Zhang, Y., Yu, D., Chen, W., and Ju, Y. (2018). “A deep learning approach on short-term spatiotemporal distribution forecasting of dockless bike-sharing system.” Neural Computing & Applications, Springer, pp. 1–13, DOI: 10.1007/s0052.Google Scholar
  2. Alvarez-Valdes, R., Belenguer, J. M., Benavent, E., Bermudez, J. D., Muñoz, F., Vercher, E., and Verdejo, F. (2016). “Optimizing the level of service quality of a bike-sharing system.” Omega, Elsevier, Vol. 62, pp. 163–175, DOI:10.1016/ Scholar
  3. Aultmanhall, L., Hall, F., and Baetz, B. W. (1997). “Analysis of bicycle commuter routes using geographic information systems: Implications for bicycle planning.” Transportation Research Record Journal of the Transportation Research Board, TRB, No. 1578, pp. 102–110, DOI: 10.3141/1578-13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bachand-Marleau, J., Lee, B. H. Y., and El-Geneidy, A. M. (2012). “Better understanding of factors influencing likelihood of using shared bicycle systems and frequency of use.” Transportation Research Record Journal of the Transportation Research Board, TRB, No. 2314, pp. 66–71, DOI: 10.3141/2314-09.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bhatta, B. P. and Larsen, O. I. (2011). “Errors in variables in multinomial choice modeling: A simulation study applied to a multinomial logit model of travel mode choice.” Transport Policy, Elsevier, Vol. 18, No. 2, pp. 326–335, DOI: 10.1016/j.tranpol.2010.10.002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Buck, D. and Buehler, R. (2012). “Bike lanes and other determinants of capital bikeshare trips.” Transportation Research Board 91st Annual Meeting, TRB, Washington, D.C., USA.Google Scholar
  7. Buck, D., Watkins, A., Gilliland, E., Bicycle, A., Jcdecaux, M. I., and Oybike, A. G. (2011). “Virginia tech capital bikeshare study: A closer look at casual users and operations.” Transportation Research Board 91st Annual Meeting, TRB, Washington, D.C., USA.Google Scholar
  8. Campbell, A. A., Cherry, C. R., Ryerson, M. S., and Yang, X. (2016). “Factors influencing the choice of shared bicycles and shared electric bikes in Beijing.” Transportation Research Part C, Elsevier, Vol. 67, pp. 399–414, DOI: 10.1016/j.trc.2016.03.004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Castillo-Manzano, J. I., López-Valpuesta, L., and Sánchez-Braza, A. (2016). “Going a long way? On your bike! Comparing the distances for which public bicycle sharing system and private bicycles are used.” Applied Geography, Elsevier, Vol. 71, pp. 95–105, DOI: 10.1016/j.apgeog.2016.04.003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Chen, Y., Chen, S., Zhang, Z., Chen, C., and Fellow, R. (2017). “Resolving and enlightenment for the denmark national bicycle strategy.” China Transportation Review, CNKI, Vol. 39, No. 5, pp. 74–84, DOI: 1000-713X (2017) 05-0074-07. (In Chinese).Google Scholar
  11. Chen, M., Wang, D., Sun, Y., Waygood, E. O. D., and Yang, W. (2018). “A comparison of users’ characteristics between station-based bikesharing system and free-floating bikesharing system: Case study in Hangzhou, China.” Transportation, Springer, pp. 1–16, DOI: 10.1007/s1111.Google Scholar
  12. Communications Institute (2018). Report on the economic and social impact of free-floating bike-sharing in 2017, Communications Institute, Beijing, China. &wfr=spider&for=pc. [Accessed on February 8, 2018].Google Scholar
  13. Dill, J. and Gliebe, J. (2008). “Understanding and measuring bicycling behavior: A focus on travel time and route choice.” Transportation Research Board 88th Annual Meeting, TRB, Washington, D.C., USA.Google Scholar
  14. Du, M. and Cheng, L. (2018). “Better understanding the characteristics and influential factors of different travel patterns in free-floating bike sharing: evidence from Nanjing, China.” Sustainability, MDPI, Vol. 10, No. 4, pp. 1244, DOI: 10.3390/su10041244.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Faghih-Imani, A. and Eluru, N. (2015). “Analysing bicycle-sharing system user destination choice preferences: Chicago’s Divvy system.” Journal of Transport Geography, Elsevier, Vol. 44, pp. 53–64, DOI: 10.1016/j.jtrangeo.2015.03.005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Fishman, E., Washington, S., Haworth, N., and Mazzei, A. (2014). “Barriers to bikesharing: An analysis from Melbourne and Brisbane.” Journal of Transport Geography, Elsevier, Vol. 41, pp. 325–337, DOI: 10.1016/j.jtrangeo.2014.08.005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Fishman, E., Washington, S., Haworth, N., and Watson, A. (2015). “Factors influencing bike share membership: An analysis of melbourne and brisbane.” Transportation Research Part A, Elsevier, Vol. 71, pp. 17–30, DOI:10.1016/j.tra.2014.10.021.Google Scholar
  18. Fuller, D., Gauvin, L., Kestens, Y., Daniel, M., Fournier, M., Morency, P., and Drouin, L. (2011). “Use of a new public bicycle share program in Montreal, Canada.” American Journal of Preventive Medicine, Elsevier, Vol. 41, No. 1, pp. 80–83, DOI: 10.1016/j.amepre. 2011.03.002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Gössling, S. (2013). “Urban transport transitions: Copenhagen, City of Cyclists.” Journal of Transport Geography, Elsevier, Vol. 33, pp. 196–206, DOI: 10.1016/j.jtrangeo.2013.10.013.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Hu, X. (2018). Travel report of FFBS in Kunming in 2017, Kunming Urban Transportation Research Institute, Kunming, China. http:// [Accessed on February 1, 2018].Google Scholar
  21. Institute for Transportation and Development Policy (2014). Riding the bike-share boom: The top five components of a successful system. Institute for Transportation and Development Policy, New York, NY, USA. of-a-successful-system/. [Accessed on March 25, 2014].Google Scholar
  22. Jäppinen, S., Toivonen, T., and Salonen, M. (2013). “Modelling the potential effect of shared bicycles on public transport travel times in Greater Helsinki: An open data approach.” Applied Geography, Elsevier, Vol. 43, pp. 13–24, DOI: 10.1016/j.apgeog.2013.05.010.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Kunming Statistics Bureau (2017). Statistical communiqu of national economic and social development in Kunming in 2017, Kunming Statistics Bureau, Kunming, China. [Accessed on May 10, 2018].Google Scholar
  24. Li, Q. (2018). It’s more convenient for travel to construct public transport, Yunnan Daily, Kunming, Yunnan. 0219/c378439-31265234.html. [Accessed on February 19, 2018].Google Scholar
  25. Li, X., Zhang, Y., Sun, L., and Liu, Q. (2018). “Free-floating bike sharing in Jiangsu: Users’ behaviors and influencing factors.” Energies, MDPI, Vol. 11, No. 7, pp. 1664, DOI: 10.3390/en11071664.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Ma, T., Liu, C., and Erdogan, S. (2015). “Bicycle sharing and transit: Does capital bike-share affect metrorail ridership in Washington, DC?” Transportation Research Board 94th Annual Meeting, TRB, Washington, D.C., USA, pp. 2534.Google Scholar
  27. Mcfadden, D., Train, K., and Tye, W. B. (1978). “An application of diagnostic tests for the irrelevant alternatives properties of the multinomial Logit model.” Transportation Research Record Journal of the Transportation Research Board, TRB, No. 637, pp. 39–45.Google Scholar
  28. Ministry of Transport (2017). Guiding opinions on encouraging and regulating the development of internet bicycle rental, Ministry of Transport, Beijing, China. Gid=9ae31bc472d0cb0d&Search_Mode=accurate&Search_IsTitle =0. [Accessed on August 1, 2017].Google Scholar
  29. Nair, R., Miller-Hooks, E., Hampshire, R. C., and Busic, A. (2013). “Large- Scale vehicle sharing systems: Analysis of Vélib’.” International Journal of Sustainable Transportation, Taylor & Francis, Vol. 7, No. 1, pp. 85–106, DOI: 10.1080/15568318.2012.660115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Nakamura, H. and Abe, N. (2014). “Evaluation of the hybrid model of public bicycle-sharing operation and private bicycle parking management.” Transport Policy, Elsevier, Vol. 35, pp. 31–41, DOI: 10.1016/ j.tranpol.2014.05.009.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Pal, A. and Zhang, Y. (2017). “Free-floating bike sharing: Solving reallife large-scale static rebalancing problems.” Transportation Research Part C Emerging Technologies, Elsevier, Vol. 80, pp. 92–116, DOI: 10.1016/j.trc.2017.03.016.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Rebecca, G. and Laurie, M. (2012). “Exploring bicycle options for federal lands: Bike sharing, rentals and employee fleets.” Transportation Research Board 91st Annual Meeting, TRB, Washington, D.C., USA.Google Scholar
  33. Schulz, A., Nobis, C., Eggs, J., and Bäumer, M. (2016). “German national travel survey ‘MiD 2016–Mobility in Germany: New challenges–New approaches.” European Transport Conference 2016, TRB, Barcelona, Spain.Google Scholar
  34. Shaheen, S. A., Martin, E., Chan, N., Cohen, A., and Pogodzinski, M. (2014). “Public bikesharing in north america during a period of rapid expansion: Understanding business models, industry trends and user impacts.” Transportation Research Board 94th Annual Meeting, TRB, Washington, D.C., USA.Google Scholar
  35. Shaheen, S. A., Martin, E., Cohen, A., and Finson, R. S. (2012). Public bikesharing in North America: Early operator and user understanding. Mineta Transportation Institute, San José State University, San José, CA, USA. north-america-early-operator-and-user-understanding. [Accessed on June 2012].Google Scholar
  36. Shaheen, S. A., Martin, E., and Cohen, A. (2013). “Public bikesharing and modal shift behavior: A comparative study of early bikesharing systems in North America.” International Journal of Transportation, Science & Engineering Research Support Society, Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 35–54, DOI: 10.14257/ijt.2013.1.1.03.Google Scholar
  37. Shaheen, S. A., Zhang, H., Martin, E., and Guzman, S.(2011). “China’s hangzhou public bicycle: Understanding early adoption and behavioral response to bikesharing.” Transportation Research Record Journal of the Transportation Research Board, TRB, No. 2247, pp. 34–41, DOI: 10.3141/2247-05.Google Scholar
  38. Shen, Y., Zhang, X., and Zhao, J. (2018). “Understanding the usage of dockless bike sharing in Singapore.” International Journal of Sustainable Transportation, Taylor & Francis Group, Vol. 12, No. 9, pp. 1–15, DOI: 10.1080/15568318.2018.1429696.Google Scholar
  39. Tang, Y., Pan, H., and Shen, Q. (2011). “Bike-sharing systems in Beijing, Shanghai, and Hangzhou and their impact on travel behavior.” Transportation Research Board 90th Annual Meeting, TRB, Washington, D.C., USA.Google Scholar
  40. Verplanken, B. and Aarts, H. (1997). “Habit, information acquisition, and the process of making travel mode choices.” European Journal of Social Psychology, American Psychological Association, Vol. 27, No. 5, pp. 539–560, DOI: 10.1016/S0001-6918(97)00008-5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Vogel, P., Greiser, T., and Mattfeld, D. C. (2011). “Understanding bikesharing systems using data mining: Exploring activity patterns.” Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, Elsevier, Vol. 20, No. 6, pp. 514–523, DOI: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2011.08.058.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Woodcock, J., Tainio, M., Cheshire, J., O’Brien, O. (2014). “Health effects of the London bicycle sharing system: Health impact modelling study.” Bmj-British Medical Journal, BMJ, Vol. 348, DOI: 10.1136/bmj.g425.Google Scholar
  43. Yang, R. and Long, R. (2016). “Analysis of the influencing factors of the public willingness to participate in public bicycle projects and intervention strategies—A Case study of Jiangsu Province, China.” Sustainability, MDPI, Vol. 8, No. 4, pp. 349, DOI: 10.3390/su8040349.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Zhang, D. (2011). “A Multinomial logit model for travel mode choice analysis with tram introduced as a new alternative.” Chinese Journal of Transport Information & Safety, CNKI, Vol. 29, No. 4, pp. 75–79, DOI: 10.3963/ j.ISSN 1674-4861.2011.04.017. (in Chinese).Google Scholar
  45. Zhang, Y., Liu, X., and Zhang, H. (2015). “Survey on the reorganization and using status of public bicycle system in urban fringe areas: Taking Tongzhou and Daxing districts of Beijing for example.” Chinese Journal of Urban Problem, CNKI, No. 3, pp. 42–46, DOI: 10.13239 /j.bjsshkxy.cswt.150307. (in Chinese).Google Scholar
  46. Zhang, H., Shaheen, S. A., and Chen, X. (2014). “Bicycle evolution in China: From the 1900s to the Present.” International Journal of Sustainable Transportation, Taylor & Franci s Group, Vol. 8, No. 5, pp. 317–335, DOI: 10.1080/15568318.2012.699999.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Korean Society of Civil Engineers 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Xuefeng Li
    • 1
  • Yong Zhang
    • 1
    Email author
  • Mingyang Du
    • 1
  • Jingzong Yang
    • 2
  1. 1.School of TransportationSoutheast UniversityNanjing, JiangsuChina
  2. 2.School of InformationBaoshan UniversityBaoshan, YunnanChina

Personalised recommendations