Fast Seismic Life Cycle Cost Optimization of Steel Moment Frames to Improve Seismic Performance

  • Hossein Mirzaei
  • Kiarash NasserasadiEmail author
Structural Engineering


This study presents a fast method of Life Cycle Cost (LCC) optimization of structures. One of the main obstacles to implementation of seismic lice cycle cost optimization is the time-consuming process of evaluating the possibility of failure of the structure. To overcome this restriction, in the proposed approach, the probability of failure is estimated using fragility functions. A fast method for developing the fragility function was employed in this paper to reduce the computation time. Two well-studied frames, adopted from the literature, were studied to demonstrate the implementation of the methodology. A comparison of results with previous studies indicates that a reasonable increase in the initial cost substantially reduces damage and life-cycle costs of the structure. It also significantly improves the seismic performance of structures. The proposed method can be employed to design more reliable and economical structures.


life cycle cost optimization fragility curve performance based design seismic design 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. AISC (Ed.). (2001). Load and resistance factor design, American Institute of Steel Construction.Google Scholar
  2. Baltzopoulos, G., Baraschino, R., Iervolino, I., and Vamvatsikos, D. (2017). “SPO2FRAG: Software for seismic fragility assessment based on static pushover.” Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering, Vol. 15, No. 10, pp. 4399–4425, DOI: 10.1007/s10518-017-0145-3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bucher, C. and Frangopol, D. M. (2006). “Optimization of lifetime maintenance strategies for deteriorating structures considering probabilities of violating safety, condition, and cost thresholds.” Probabilistic Engineering Mechanics, Vol. 21, No. 1, pp. 1–8, DOI: 10.1016/j.probengmech.2005.06.002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Cornell, C. A. (1968). “Engineering seismic risk analysis.” Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, Vol. 58, No. 5, pp. 1583–1606.Google Scholar
  5. Cornell, C. A., Jalayer, F., O, H. R., and Jalayer A, F. D. (2002). “Probabilistic basis for 2000 SAC federal emergency management agency steel moment frame guidelines.” Journal of Structural Engineering, Vol. 128, No. 4, pp. 526–533.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. FEMA (2008). HAZUS MH estimated annualized earthquake losses for the United States. Federal Emergency Management Agency.Google Scholar
  7. Fragiadakis, M., Lagaros, N. D., and Papadrakakis, M. (2006). “Performancebased multiobjective optimum design of steel structures considering life-cycle cost.” Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization, Vol. 32, No. 1, pp. 1–11, DOI: 10.1007/s00158-006-0009-y.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Fragiadakis, M. and Papadrakakis, M. (2008). “Performance-based optimum seismic design of reinforced concrete structures.” Earthquake Engineering & Structural Dynamics, Vol. 37, No. 6, pp. 825–844, DOI: 10.1002/eqe.786.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Frangopol, D. M., Brühwiler, E. B., Faber, M. H., and Adey, B. (2004). Lifecycle performance of deteriorating structures, ASCE Publications.Google Scholar
  10. Frangopol, D. M. and Liu, M. (2007). “Maintenance and management of civil infrastructure based on condition, safety, optimization, and life-cycle cost.” Structure and Infrastructure Engineering, Vol. 3, No. 1, pp. 29–41, DOI: 10.1080/15732470500253164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Gupta, A. and Krawinkler, H. (1999). Seismic demands for performance evaluation of steel moment resisting frame structures, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering Stanford University.Google Scholar
  12. Hasan, R., Xu, L., and Grierson, D. E. (2002). “Push-over analysis for performance-based seismic design.” Computers & Structures, Vol. 80, No. 31, pp. 2483–2493, DOI: 10.1016/S0045-7949(02)00212-2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Ibarra, L. F. and Krawinkler, H. (2005). Global collapse of frame structures under seismic excitations, Report No 152. Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center.Google Scholar
  14. Jalayer, F. and Cornell, A. C. (2003). A technical framework for probabilitybased Demand and Capacity Factor Design (DCFD) Seismic Formats, Report no. PEER-2003/08, Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center.Google Scholar
  15. Kang, Y. J. and Wen, Y. K. (2000). “Minimum life-cycle cost structural design against natural hazards.” 8th ASCE Specialty Conference on Probabilistic Mechanics and Structural Reliability, PMC2000-146, Notre Dame, IN, USA.Google Scholar
  16. Kaveh, A., Farahmand Azar, B., Hadidi, A., Rezazadeh Sorochi, F., and Talatahari, S. (2010). “Performance-based seismic design of steel frames using ant colony optimization.” Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Vol. 66, No. 4, pp. 566–574, DOI: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2009.11.006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Kaveh, A., Laknejadi, K., and Alinejad, B. (2012). “Performance-based multi-objective optimization of large steel structures.” Acta Mechanica, Vol. 223, No. 2, pp. 355–369, DOI: 10.1007/s00707-011-0564-1.CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  18. Kong, J. S. and Frangopol, D. M. (2003). “Life-cycle reliability-based maintenance cost optimization of deteriorating structures with emphasis on bridges.” Journal of Structural Engineering, Vol. 129, No. 6, pp. 818–828, DOI: 10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9445(2003)129:6(818).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Li, G., Zhang, D., and Yue, Q. (2009). “Life-cycle cost-effective optimum design of ice-resistant offshore platforms.” Journal of Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Engineering, Vol. 131, No. 3, 031501, DOI: 10.1115/1.3124138.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Lignos, D. G. and Krawinkler, H. (2011). “Deterioration modeling of steel components in support of collapse prediction of steel moment frames under earthquake loading.” Journal of Structural Engineering, Vol. 137, No. 11, pp. 1291–1302, DOI: 10.1061/(ASCE)ST.1943-541X.0000376.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Liu, M., Burns, S. A., and Wen, Y. K. (2003). “Optimal seismic design of steel frame buildings based on life cycle cost considerations.” Earthquake Engineering & Structural Dynamics, Vol. 32, No. 9, pp. 1313–1332, DOI: 10.1002/eqe.273.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Liu, M., Burns, S. A., and Wen, Y. K. (2005). Multiobjective optimization for performance-based seismic design of steel moment frame structures. Earthquake Engineering & Structural Dynamics, Vol. 34, No. 3, pp. 289–306, DOI: 10.1002/eqe.426.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Liu, M., Wen, Y. K., and Burns, S. A. (2004). “Life cycle cost oriented seismic design optimization of steel moment frame structures with risk-taking preference.” Engineering Structures, Vol. 26, No. 10, pp. 1407–1421, DOI: 10.1016/j.engstruct.2004.05.015.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Mazzoni, S., McKenna, F., Scott, M., and Fenves, G. L. (2007). Command language manual-open system for earthquake engineering simulation (OpenSees), Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center, University of California, Berkeley.Google Scholar
  25. Nasserasadi, K., Ghafory-Ashtiany, M., Eshghi, S., and Zolfaghari, M. R. (2008). “Developing seismic fragility function of structures by stochastic approach.” Journal of Applied Sciences, Vol. 8, No. 6, pp. 975–983, DOI: 10.3923/jas.2008.975.983.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Rojas, H. A., Foley, C., and Pezeshk, S. (2011). “Risk-based seismic design for optimal structural and nonstructural system performance.” Earthquake Spectra, Vol. 27, No. 3, pp. 857–880, DOI: 10.1193/1.3609877.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Sarma, K. C. and Adeli, H. (2002). “Life-cycle cost optimization of steel structures.” International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering, Vol. 55, No. 12, pp. 1451–1462, DOI: 10.1002/nme.549.CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  28. Tafakori, E., Banazadeh, M., Jalali, S. A., and Tehranizadeh, M. (2011). “Risk-based optimal retrofit of a tall steel building by using friction dampers.” The Structural Design of Tall and Special Buildings, Vol. 22, No. 9, pp. 700–717, DOI: 10.1002/tal.720.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Vamvatsikos, D. and Cornell, A. C. (2006). “Direct estimation of the seismic demand and capacity of oscillators with multi-linear static pushovers through IDA.” Earthquake Engineering & Structural Dynamics, Vol. 35, No. 9, pp. 1097–1117, DOI: 10.1002/eqe.573.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Zacharenaki, A. E., Fragiadakis, M., and Papadrakakis, M. (2013). Reliability-based optimum seismic design of structures using simplified performance estimation methods. Engineering Structures, Vol. 52, pp. 707–717, DOI: 10.1016/j.engstruct.2013.03.007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Korean Society of Civil Engineers and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Dept. of Civil EngineeringUniversity of ZanjanZanjanIran

Personalised recommendations