Advertisement

KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering

, Volume 23, Issue 12, pp 5051–5063 | Cite as

Research on the Entrainment of Path Material by the Granular Flow

  • Yunyun FanEmail author
  • Fengyuan Wu
  • Ming Li
  • Li Liang
Geotechnical Engineering
  • 11 Downloads

Abstract

The experiment and numerical simulation were used to study the entrainment of path material by the granular flow. The effects of several factors on the entrainment were observed through the experiment. Research results show that when the granular flow passes on the loose material, the entrainment and deposition occur simultaneously. The final mass reduction in the entrainment area is a comprehensive performance of the entrainment and deposition. In general, the mass reduction in the entrainment area is directly proportional to the relative position of the source area and inversely proportional to the length of the entrainment area. The longer the entrainment area, the stronger the retarding effect on the granular flow Within the ability of the entrainment area to support grains, the deposition mass increases as the mass of the material from the source area increases. The numerical results show that the entrainment mainly passes through three main stages. In the first stage, the shear friction and collision between grains form a limited entrainment. In the second stage, the granular flow mainly scales up the entrainment by scraping. In the last stage, the rear part of the granular flow is deposited in the formed pit due to resistance.

Keywords

granular flow movement process entrainment of path material experiment numerical simulation 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work is supported by the National Key Research and Development Program of China (Grant No. 2016YFC0801603, 2017YFC1503101), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 41201007, 51474048), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities of China (Grant No. N170108029), and the Research Fund for General Science Project of Department of Education of Liaoning Province (Grant No. L2013103).

References

  1. Abdelrazek, A. M., Kimura, I., and Shimizu, Y. (2016). “Simulation of three-dimensional rapid free-surface granular flow past different types of obstructions using the SPH method.” Journal of Glaciology, Vol. 62, No. 232, pp. 335–347, DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1017/jog.2016.22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Chen, H. K., Tang, H. M., and Wu, S. F. (2004). “Research on abrasion of debris flow to high-speed drainage structure.” Applied Mathematics and Mechanics, Vol. 25, No. 11, pp. 1257–1264, DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02438281.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Christen, M., Kowalski, J., and Bartelt, P. (2010). “RAMMS: Numerical simulation of dense snow avalanches in three-dimensional terrain.” Cold Regions Science and Technology, Vol. 63, Nos. 1–2, pp. 1–14, DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.coldregions.2010.04.005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Crosta, G. B., Chen, H., and Lee, C. F. (2004). “Replay of the 1987 Val Pola landslide, Italian Alps.” Geomorphology, Vol. 60, Nos. 1–2, pp. 127–146, DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geomorph.2003.07.015.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Crosta, G. B., Imposimato, S., and Roddeman, D. (2009). “Numerical modelling of entrainment deposition in rock and debris-avalanches.” Engineering Geology, Vol. 109, Nos. 1–2, pp. 135–145, DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enggeo.2008.10.004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cui, Y., Choi, C. E., Liu, L. H. D., and Ng, C. W. W. (2018). “Effects of particle size of mono-disperse granular flows impacting a rigid barrier.” Natural Hazards, Vol. 91, No. 3, pp. 1179–1201, DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11069-018-3185-3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Egashira, S., Honda, N., and Itoh, T. (2001). “Experimental study on the entrainment of bed material into debris flow.” Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Part C: Solar, Terrestrial & Planetary Science, Vol. 26, No. 9, pp. 645–650, DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/S1464-1917(01)00062-9.Google Scholar
  8. Fan, Y. Y. and Wu, F. Y. (2019). “Research on the obstruction process of rigid netting barriers toward granular flow.” Advances in Civil Engineering, Vol. 2019, p. 9542129, DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1155/2019/9542129.Google Scholar
  9. Farin, M., Mangeney, A., and Roche, O. (2014). “Fundamental changes of granular flow dynamics, deposition, and erosion processes at high slope angles: Insights from laboratory experiments.” Journal of Geophysical Research: Earth Surface, Vol. 119, No. 3, pp. 504–532, DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1002/2013JF002750.Google Scholar
  10. Hungr, O. and Evans, S. G. (2004). “Entrainment of debris in rock avalanches: An analysis of a long run-out mechanism.” Geological Society of America Bulletin, Vol. 116, Nos. 9–10, pp. 1240–1252, DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1130/B25362.1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Itasca Consulting Group Inc. (2002). “Theory and background.” PFC Particle Flow Code. Ver. 3.0 Manual, Itasca, Minneapolis, MN, USA, pp. 1–28.Google Scholar
  12. Iverson, R. M. and Ouyang, C. (2015). “Entrainment of bed material by Earth-surface mass flows: Review and reformulation of depth-integrated theory.” Reviews of Geophysics, Vol. 53, No. 1, pp. 27–58, DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1002/2013RG000447.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Jiang, Y. J. and Towhata, I. (2013). “Experimental study of dry granular flow and impact behavior against a rigid retaining wall.” Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering, Vol. 46, No. 4, pp. 713–729, DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00603-012-0293-3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Kang, C. and Chan, D. (2018). “Numerical simulation of 2D granular flow entrainment using DEM.” Granular Matter, Vol. 20, No. 1, p. 13, DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10035-017-0782-x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Li, P., Hu, K., and Wang, X. (2018). “Debris flow entrainment rates in non-uniform channels with convex and concave slopes.” Journal of Hydraulic Research, Vol. 56, No. 2, pp. 156–167, DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1080/00221686.2017.1313321.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Lu, P. Y., Yang, X. G. and Xu, F. G., Hou, T. X., and Zhou, J. W. (2016). “An analysis of the entrainment effect of dry debris avalanches on loose bed materials.” Springer Plus, Vol. 5, No. 1, p. 1621, DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1186/s40064-016-3272-4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Mangeney, A., Roche, O., Hungr, O., Mangold, N., Faccanoni, G., and Lucas, A. (2010). “Erosion and mobility in granular collapse over sloping beds.” Journal of Geophysical Research: Earth Surface, Vol. 115, p. F03040, DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1029/2009JF001462.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. McDougall, S. and Hungr, O. (2005). “Dynamic modelling of entrainment in rapid landslides.” Canadian Geotechnical Journal, Vol. 42, No. 5, pp. 1437–1447, DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1139/t05-064.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Medina, V., Hurlimann, M., and Bateman, A. (2008). “Application of FLAT Model, a 2D finite volume code, to debris flows in the northeastern part of the Iberian Peninsula.” Landslides, Vol. 5, No. 1, pp. 127–142, DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10346-007-0102-3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Naaim, M., Naaim-Bouvet, F., Faug, T., and Bouchet, A. (2004). “Dense snow avalanche modeling: Flow, erosion, deposition and obstacle effects.” Cold Regions Science and Technology, Vol. 39, Nos. 2–3, pp. 193–204, DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.coldregions.2004.07.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Ouyang, C., He, S., and Tang, C. (2015). “Numerical analysis of dynamics of debris flow over erodible beds in Wenchuan earthquake-induced area.” Engineering Geology, Vol. 194, pp. 62–72, DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enggeo.2014.07.012.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Pitman, E. B., Nichita, C. C., Patra, A. K., Bauer, A. C., Bursik, M., and Weber, A. (2003). “A model of granular flows over an erodible surface.” Discrete and Continuous Dynamical Systems Series B, Vol. 3, No. 4, pp. 589–600, DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1137/060677501.MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Xing, A., Yuan, X., Xu, Q., Zhao, Q., Huang, H., and Cheng, Q. (2017). “Characteristics and numerical runout modelling of a catastrophic rock avalanche triggered by the Wenchuan earthquake in the Wenjia valley, Mianzhu, Sichuan, China.” Landslides, Vol. 14, No. 1, pp. 83–98, DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10346-016-0707-5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Korean Society of Civil Engineers 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education on Safe Mining of Deep Metal MinesNortheastern UniversityShenyangChina
  2. 2.School of Civil EngineeringShenyang Jianzhu UniversityShenyangChina

Personalised recommendations