KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering

, Volume 23, Issue 5, pp 1999–2008 | Cite as

Behaviors of Wall and Ground due to T-shaped Excavation

  • Xiaodong ZhaoEmail author
  • Guoqing Zhou
  • Laijun Qiao
  • Yangguang Chen
Geotechnical Engineering


Extensive monitoring was performed on a T-shaped site with a length of 280 m, a width of 16 m, and a maximal depth of 20.4 m. The braced excavation was performed under retaining comprised of cast-in-situ bored piles and jet grouting piles. The field databased wall performance and its influences to ground were assessed by detailed comparisons with that in other excavations. It is showed that the wall deflections, ground movements and bracing forces all exhibited a typical camelback-shaped characteristic along the length direction, and a maximum 100% reduction of which was observed due to the jet grouting. The rebar near sections with varied excavation depths was in a tension state both on the excavation and the retained sides due to the two-dimensional unbalanced force, and the corresponding bracing force was small. The maximum wall deflection δhm decreased as the partitioning excavation moved horizontally, and it was less than 0.04% of the final horizontal excavation length Le. The normalized Fσmax approximately approached to be identical with the normalized Fbmax, while most of the occurring depths for Fσmax were greater than that for Fbmax.


T-shaped excavation large length-width ratio varied excavation depth jet grouting wall and ground behaviors 


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Copyright information

© Korean Society of Civil Engineers 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Xiaodong Zhao
    • 1
    Email author
  • Guoqing Zhou
    • 1
  • Laijun Qiao
    • 2
  • Yangguang Chen
    • 3
  1. 1.State Key Laboratory for Geomechanics and Deep Underground EngineeringChina University of Mining and TechnologyXuzhou, JiangsuChina
  2. 2.Pingdingshan Coal Preparation Design and Research InstituteBeijing Huayu Engineering Co., Ltd.BeijingChina
  3. 3.Dept. of Infrastructure BusinessChina State Construction Engineering Co., Ltd.BeijingChina

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