Advertisement

KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering

, Volume 23, Issue 9, pp 3935–3950

# A Novel Approach for Determining Pile Spacing considering Interactions among Multilayered Sliding Masses in Colluvial Landslides

• Haikuan Zhang
• Changdong Li
• Wenmin Yao
• Jingjing Long
Geotechnical Engineering
• 18 Downloads

## Abstract

It is reported that there are many colluvial landslides with multilayered sliding masses; however, previous studies of the pile spacing of stabilizing piles mainly focus on the single-layered sliding mass, which may lead to design errors for pile spacing. Consequently, the paper presents a novel method to determine the pile spacing with considering interactions of multilayered sliding masses in colluvial landslides. Based on a generalized landslide model, equations for calculating stability coefficients of multilayered sliding masses were improved by examining the interactions among sliding masses. An accordingly colluvial landslide model with double-layered sliding masses was established by the finite differential method. The distribution of vertical landslide driving force and horizontal loading between adjacent piles were studied based on the colluvial landslide. A novel method of calculating the maximum pile spacing and minimum pile spacing was deduced by considering the soil arching effect and the interactions among multilayered sliding masses. The reasonable pile spacing was obtained considering cost and performance of stabilizing piles. The calculational process, which determines optimal pile spacing in multilayered masses, were shown based on the Bazimen landslide. The variations in pile spacing affected by various soil-layer sequences was illustrated by employing the Bazimen landslide model. The calculation results indicate that the pile spacing is positively correlated with the depth of soil with the maximum resistance sliding force. Effectiveness and significance of the presented method were proved through verify the calculational results by using numerical modeling approaches.

## Keywords

colluvial landslide multilayered sliding masses pile spacing stabilizing pile soil arching effect

## Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

## Notes

### Acknowledgements

The research is supported by the National Key R&D Program of China (2018YFC1507200, 2017YFC1501304), National Natural Science Fund of China (No.41472261), The Fundamental Research Funds for The Central Universitie, China University of Geosciences (Wuhan) (No. CUGCJ1701).

## References

1. Ashour, M. and Ardalan, H. (2012). “Analysis of pile stabilized slopes based on soil-pile interaction.” Computers and Geotechnics, Vol. 39, pp. 85–97, DOI: .
2. Chambers, J. E., Wilkinson, P. B., Kuras, O., Ford, J. R., Gunn, D. A., Meldrum, P. I., Pennington, C. V. L., Weller, A. L., Hobbs, P. R. N., and Ogilvy, R. D. (2011). “Three-dimensional geophysical anatomy of an active landslide in Lias Group mudrocks, Cleveland Basin, UK.” Geomorphology, Vol. 125, No. 4, pp. 472–484, DOI: .
3. Chang, S. B., Zhang S. M., Xiang, B., Hua, J. X., Yang, J. F., Zheng, J. G, and Tang, X. D. (2007). Handbook of engineering geology (4th Ed.), China Architecture and Building Press, Beijing, pp. 168–170 (in Chinese).Google Scholar
4. Chen, X. Z. and Cui, Y. F. (2017). “The formation of the Wulipo landslide and the resulting debris flow in Dujiangyan City, China.” Journal of Mountain Science, Vol. 14, No. 6, pp. 1100–1112, DOI: .
5. Du, J., Yin, K. L., and Lacasse, S. (2013). “Displacement prediction in colluvial landslides, Three Gorges Reservoir, China.” Landslides, Vol. 10, No. 2, pp. 203–218, DOI: .
6. Frank, R. and Pouget P. (2011). “Experimental pile subjected to long duration thrusts owing to a moving slope.” Géotechnique, Vol. 58, No. 8, pp. 645–658, DOI: .
7. GB 50021-2001 (2009). Code for investigation of geotechnical engineering, GB 50021-2001 (2009 modified edition), National Standard of People’s Republic of China, China Architecture and Building Press, Beijing, china, pp. 49–61 (in Chinese).Google Scholar
8. Guo, W. D. and Qin, H. Y. (2010). “Thrust and bending moment of rigid piles subjected to moving soil.” Canadian Geotechnical Journal, Vol. 47, No. 2, pp. 180–196, DOI: .
9. Handy, R. L. (1985). “The arch in soil arching.” Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, Vol. 111, No. 3, pp. 302–318.
10. Hou, T. S., Xu, G. L., Shen, Y. J., Wu, Z. Z., Zhang, N. N., and Wang, R. (2013). “Formation mechanism and stability analysis of the Houba expansive soil landslide.” Engineering Geology, Vol. 161, No. 14, pp. 34–43, DOI: .
11. Kargel, J. S., Leonard, G. J., Shugar, D. H., Haritashya U. K., Bevington, A., Fielding, E. J., Fujita, K., Geertsema, M., Miles, E. S., Steiner, J., Anderson, E., Bajracharya, S., Bawden, G. W., Breashears, D. F., Byers, A., Collins, B., Dhital, M. R., Donnellan, A., Evans, T. L., Geai, M. L., Glasscoe, M. T., Green, D., Gurung, D. R., Heijenk, R., Hilborn, A., Hudnut, K., Huyck, C., Immerzeel, W. W., Jiang L. M., Jibson, R., Kääb, A., Khanal, N. R., Kirschbaum, D., Kraaijenbrink, P. D. A., Lamsal, D., Liu. S.Y., Lv M.Y., McKinney, D., Nahirnick, N. K., Nan Z.T., Ojha, S., Olsenholler, J., Painter, T. H., Pleasants, M., Pratima, K.C., QI, Y., Raup, B. H., Regmi, D., Rounce, D. R., Sakai, A., Shangguan D.H., Shea, J. M., Shrestha, A. B., Shukla, A., Stumm, D., van der Kooij, M., Voss, K., Wang, X., Wolfe, D., Wu L. Z., Yao X. J., Yoder, M. R., Young, N. (2016). “Geomorphic and geologic controls of geohazards induced by Nepal’s 2015 Gorkha earthquake.” Science, Vol. 351, No. 6269, DOI: .
12. Kong, D. S., Deng, M. X., and Xu, Y. (2019a). “Study on calculation of pile sliding interval of large-diameter steel pipe piles on offshore platforms.” Mathematical Problems in Engineering, DOI: .
13. Kong, D. S., Deng, M. X., and Zhao, Z. Z. (2019b). “Seismic interaction characteristics of an inclined straight alternating pile group-soil in liquefied ground.” Advances in Civil Engineering, DOI: .
14. Lee, Y. K. and Ghosh, J. (1996). “The significance of J3, to the prediction of shear bands.” International Journal of Plasticity, Vol. 12, No. 9, pp. 1179–1197, DOI: .
15. Li, C. D., Liu, Q. T., Hu, X. L., Wang, L. Q., and Ez Eldin, M. A. M. (2016). “Influence of composite elastic modulus and lateral load pattern on deflection of anti-slide pile head.” Journal of Civil Engineering and Management, Vol. 22, No. 3, pp. 382–390, DOI: .
16. Li, C. D., Tang, H. M., Hu, X. L., and Wang, L. Q. (2013). “Numerical modelling study of the load sharing law of anti-sliding piles based on the soil arching effect for Erliban landslide, China.” KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering, Vol. 17, No. 6, pp. 1251–1262, DOI: .
17. Li, C. D., Wu, J. J., Tang, H. M., Wang, J., Chen, F., and Liang, D. M. (2015). “A novel optimal plane arrangement of stabilizing piles based on soil arching effect and stability limit for 3D colluvial landslides.” Engineering Geology, Vol. 195, pp. 236–247, DOI: .
18. Li, C. D., Yan, J. F., Wu, J. J., Lei, G. P., Wang, L. Q., and Zhang, Y. Q. (2019). “Determination of the embedded length of stabilizing piles in colluvial landslides with upper hard and lower weak bedrock based on the deformation control principle.” Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment, Vol. 78, pp. 1189–1208, DOI: .
19. Liu, W. Q., Li, Q., Lu, J., Li, C. D., Yao, W. M., Zeng, J. B. (2018b). “Improved plane layout of stabilizing piles based on the piecewise function expression of the irregular driving force.” Journal of Mountain Science, Vol. 15, No. 4, pp. 871–881, DOI: .
20. Liu, T., Zhang, H. K., Zhang, Y., Li, C. D. (2018a). “Minimum pile spacing of stabilizing piles in 3D composite multilayer landslide.” Chinese Journal of Rock Mechanics and Engineering, Vol. 37, No. 2, pp. 473–484 (in Chinese with English Abstract).Google Scholar
21. Matsui, T., Hong, W. P., and Ito, T. (1982). “Earth pressure on piles in a row due to lateral soil movements.” Soils Found, Vol. 22, No. 2, pp. 71–81. DOI: .
22. Poulos, H. G. (1973). “Analysis of piles in soil undergoing lateral movement.” Journal of Soil Mechanics and Foundations Division, Vol. 99, No. SM5, pp. 391–406.Google Scholar
23. Poulos, H. G. (1995). “Design of reinforcing piles to increase slope stability.” Canadian Geotechnical Journal, Vol. 32, No. 5, pp. 808–818, DOI: .
24. Poulos, H. G. and Chen, L. T. (1997). “Pile response due to excavation-induced lateral soil movement.” Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, Vol. 123, No. 2, pp. 94–99, DOI: .
25. Pulko, B., Majes, B., and Mikoš, M. (2014). “Reinforced concrete shafts for the structural mitigation of large deep-seated landslides: An experience from the Macesnik and the Slano blato landslides (Slovenia).” Landslides, Vol. 11, No. 1, pp. 81–91, DOI: .
26. Song, Y. S., Hong, W., and Woo, K. (2012). “Behavior and analysis of stabilizing piles installed in a cut slope during heavy rainfall.” Engineering Geology, Vol. 129–130, pp. 56–67, DOI: .
27. Su, L. J., Hu K. H., Zhang W. F., Wang, J., Lei, Y., Zhang C. L., Cui P., Pasuto, A., and Zheng, Q. H. (2017). “Characteristics and triggering mechanism of Xinmo landslide on 24 June 2017 in Sichuan, China.” Journal of Mountain Science, Vol. 14, No. 9, pp. 1689–1700, DOI: .
28. Sun, H. Y., Wong, L. N. Y., Shang, Y. Q., Shen, Y J., and Lv, Q. (2010). “Evaluation of drainage tunnel effectiveness in landslide control.” Landslides, Vol. 7, No. 4, pp. 445–454, DOI: .
29. Tang, H. M., Hu, X. L., Xu, C., Li, C. D., Yong, R., and Wang, L. Q. (2014). “A novel approach for determining landslide pushing force based on landslide-pile interactions.” Engineering Geology, Vol. 182, pp. 15–24, DOI: .
30. Terzaghi, K. (1943). Theoretical soil mechanics. John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY, pp. 76–85, DOI: .
31. Troncone, A., Conte, E., and Donato, A. (2014). “Two and three-dimensional numerical analysis of the progressive failure that occurred in an excavation-induced landslide.” Engineering Geology, Vol. 183, pp. 265–275, DOI: .
32. Vardoulakis, L., Graf, B., and Gudehus, G. (1981). “Trap-door problem with dry sand: A statical approach based upon model test kinematics.” International Journal for Numerical and Analytical Methods in Geomechanics, Vol. 5, No. 1, pp. 57–78, DOI: .
33. Wang, L. P. and Zhang, G. (2014). “Centrifuge model test study on pile reinforcement behavior of cohesive soil slopes under earthquake conditions.” Landslides, Vol. 11, pp. 213–223, DOI: .
34. Wei, W. B., Cheng, Y. M., and Li, L. (2009). “Three-dimensional slope failure analysis by the strength reduction and limit equilibrium methods.” Computers and Geotechnics, Vol. 3, No.1, pp.70–80, DOI: .
35. Wu, J. J., Li, C. D., Liu, Q. T., and Fan, F. S. (2017). “Optimal isosceles trapezoid cross section of laterally loaded piles based on friction soil arching.” KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering, Vol. 21, No. 7, pp. 2655–2664, DOI: .
36. Xie, M. W., Tetsuro, E., Qiu, C., and Jia, L. (2007). “Spatial three-dimensional landslide susceptibility mapping tool and its applications.” Frontiers of Earth Science, Vol. 14, No. 6, pp. 73–84, DOI: .
37. Yin, Y. P. L. B. W. W. P., Zhan, L. T., Xue, Q., Gao, Y., Zhang, N., Chen, H. Q., Liu, T. K., and Li, A. G. (2016). “Mechanism of the December 2015 catastrophic landslide at the Shenzhen landfill and controlling geotechnical risks of urbanization.” Engineering, Vol. 2, pp. 230–249, DOI: .
38. Yu, M. H. (1994). “Unified strength theory for geomaterials and its application.” Chinese Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, Vol. 14, No. 2, pp. 1–10 (in Chinese).Google Scholar
39. Yu, M. H., Yang, S. Y., and Liu, C. Y. (1997). “Unified plane strain slip line field theory system.” China Civil Engineering Journal, Vol. 30, No. 2, pp. 14–26 (in Chinese with English Abstract).Google Scholar
40. Zhang, Y. Q., Tang, H. M., Li, C. D., Lu, G. Y., Yi, C., Zhang, J. R., and Tan F. L. (2018). “Design and testing of a flexible inclinometer probe for model tests of landslide deep displacement measurement.” Sensors, Vol. 18, No. 224, pp. 1–16, DOI: .Google Scholar
41. Zheng, H. (2012). “A three-dimensional rigorous method for stability analysis of landslides.” Engineering Geology, Vol. 145–146, pp. 30–40, DOI: .
42. Zhou, X. P. and Cheng, H. (2014). “Stability analysis of three-dimensional seismic landslides using the rigorous limit equilibrium method.” Engineering Geology, Vol. 174, pp. 87–102, DOI: .
43. Zhou, D. P., Xiao, X. G., and Xia, X. (2004). “Discussion on rational spacing between adjacent anti-slide piles in some cutting slope projects.” Chinese Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, Vol. 26, No. 1, pp. 132–135 (in Chinese).Google Scholar

## Copyright information

© Korean Society of Civil Engineers 2019

## Authors and Affiliations

1. 1.Faculty of EngineeringChina University of GeosciencesWuhanChina