Resonance Characteristics of Piezoelectric Resonator Based on Digital Driving Circuit of Field-Programmable Gate Array

  • Zhenyu Wang (王振瑜)
  • Xiaosheng Wu (吴校生)Email author
  • Shengzhu Shu (叔晟竹)


Piezoelectric resonators are widely used in frequency reference devices, mass sensors, resonant sensors (such as gyros and accelerometers), etc. Piezoelectric resonators usually work in a special resonant mode. Obtaining working resonant mode with high quality is key to improve the performance of piezoelectric resonators. In this paper, the resonance characteristics of a rectangular lead zirconium titanate (PZT) piezoelectric resonator are studied. On the basis of the field-programmable gate array (FPGA) embedded system, direct digital synthesizer (DDS) and automatic gain controller (AGC) are used to generate the driving signals with precisely adjustable frequency and amplitude. The driving signals are used to excite the piezoelectric resonator to the working vibration mode. The influence of the connection of driving electrodes and voltage amplitude on the vibration of the resonator is studied. The quality factor and vibration linearity of the resonator are studied with various driving methods mentioned in this paper. The resonator reaches resonant mode at 330 kHz by different driving methods. The relationship between resonant amplitude and driving signal amplitude is linear. The quality factor reaches over 150 by different driving methods. The results provide a theoretical reference for the efficient excitation of the piezoelectric resonator.

Key words

piezoelectric resonators resonant mode quality factor linearity field-programmable gate array (FPGA) 

CLC number

TN 602 

Document code


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.



The authors thank to the Center for Advanced Electronic Materials and Devices (AEMD) for providing micromachining processes.


  1. [1]
    LI G B, WU X S, CHEN W Y. Design of digital detection circuit for piezoelectric gyroscope based on FPGA [J]. Transducer and Microsystem Technologies, 2016, 35(9): 92–94 (in Chinese).Google Scholar
  2. [2]
    CHOI G B. Design of piezoelectric gyro-sensor using lanthanum gallium silicate (La3Ga5SiO14) and temperature behavior of langasite [D]. New Jersey, USA: Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, the State University of New Jersey, 2016.Google Scholar
  3. [3]
    GOLESTANYAN E. Array of piezoelectric wires in acoustic energy harvesting [D]. Texas, USA: Department of Mechanical Engineering, Southern Methodist University, 2015.Google Scholar
  4. [4]
    PALIWAL N, MUKHIJA N, BHATIA D. Design and optimization of high quality factor MEMS piezoelectric resonator with pseudo electrodes [C]//Proceedings of the 2015 4th International Conference on Reliability. Noida, India: IEEE, 2015: 1–5.Google Scholar
  5. [5]
    ZHU H S, LEE J E Y. Design of phononic crystal tethers for frequency-selective quality factor enhancement in AlN piezoelectric-on-silicon resonators [J]. Procedia Engineering, 2015, 120: 516–519.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. [6]
    HUNG LW. High-Q low-impedance MEMS resonators [D]. Berkeley, USA: School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences, University of California at Berkeley, 2011.Google Scholar
  7. [7]
    ABDOLVAND R. Thin-film piezoelectric-on-substrate resonators and narrowband filters [D]. Georgia, USA: School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, 2008.Google Scholar
  8. [8]
    CALHOUN P J. Frequency synthesis using MEMS piezoelectric resonators [D]. Massachusetts, USA: Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2004.Google Scholar
  9. [9]
    WU X S, CHEN W Y, ZHANG W P, et al. Modeling analysis of piezoelectric micromachined modal gyroscope (PMMG) [C]//Proceedings of the 2009 4th IEEE International Conference on Nano Micro Engineered and Molecular Systems. Shenzhen, China: IEEE, 2009: 304–309.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. [10]
    BLOCK S T, JIANG X N, CUI C, et al. A 100 nW CMOS wake-up receiver with −60 dBm sensitivity using AlN high-Q piezoelectric resonators [C]//Proceedings of the 2017 IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (ISCAS). Davis, USA: IEEE, 2017: 1–4.Google Scholar
  11. [11]
    TOLEDO J, MANZANEQUE T, RUIZ-DÍEZ V, et al. Comparison of in-plane and out-of-plane piezoelectric microresonators for real-time monitoring of engine oil contamination with diesel [J]. Microsystem Technologies, 2016, 22(7): 1781–1790.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. [12]
    TAN W S, FANG G W, PILLAI G, et al. Fabrication and characterization of lithium-niobate thin film MEMS piezoelectric resonators [C]/Proceedings of the 11th IEEE Annual International Conference on Nano/Micro Engineered and Molecular Systems (NEMS). Matsushima, Japan: IEEE, 2016: 516–519.Google Scholar
  13. [13]
    ELSAYED M Y, NABKI F. Piezoelectric bulk mode disk resonator post-processed for enhanced quality factor performance [J]. Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems, 2016, 26(1): 75–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. [14]
    TU C, LEE J E Y. Enhancing quality factor by etch holes in piezoelectric-on-silicon lateral mode resonators [J]. Sensors and Actuators A: Physical, 2017, 259: 144–151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. [15]
    TU C, LEE J E Y. Boosting the quality factor of low impedance VHF piezoelectric-on-silicon lateral mode resonators using etch holes [J]. Procedia Engineering, 2016, 168: 1261–1264.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Shanghai Jiaotong University and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Zhenyu Wang (王振瑜)
    • 1
  • Xiaosheng Wu (吴校生)
    • 1
    Email author
  • Shengzhu Shu (叔晟竹)
    • 1
  1. 1.National Key Laboratory of Science and Technology on Micro/Nano Fabrication; Shanghai Key Laboratory of Navigation and Location Based Services; Department of Micro/Nano ElectronicsShanghai Jiao Tong UniversityShanghaiChina

Personalised recommendations