Effect of Electron Beam Irradiation on Thermal and Mechanical Properties of Polyamide Copolymer/Multiwall Carbon Nanotube Composites

  • Chengwen Cui (崔成文)
  • Yuting Chen (陈禹廷)
  • Yong Zhang (张勇)Email author


Ternary polyamide (tPA) copolymer is susceptible to degradation when it is irradiated by electron beam (e-beam), and effective methods to avoid degradation and increase gel content are highly desirable for crosslinking. Carboxylated multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT) is modified by hydroxyethyl acrylate (HEA) in this paper and used as a co-agent for the e-beam irradiation crosslinking of tPA copolymer. HEA modified MWCNT can function as an effective co-agent for the e-beam irradiation crosslinking of tPA copolymer to increase the gel content and improve the mechanical properties of tPA copolymer. Under an irradiation of 160 kGy, addition of 2 parts per hundred (phr) HEA modified MWCNT into tPA copolymer can increase the gel content of tPA copolymer from about 20% to 40% (mass ratio) and increase the tensile strength from 45 to 59MPa. The irradiation also affects the glass transition temperature of tPA copolymer by increasing the gel content. The results show that HEA modified MWCNT can act as a nucleating agent to increase the crystallization temperature, melting temperature and crystallinity of tPA copolymer.

Key words

electron beam (e-beam) irradiation ternary polyamide (tPA) copolymer multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT) mechanical properties thermal properties 

CLC number

TQ 327.9 

Document code


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. [1]
    CHMIELEWSKI A G, HAJI-SAEID M. Radiation technologies: Past, present and future [J]. Radiation Physics and Chemistry, 2004, 71(1/2): 17–21.Google Scholar
  2. [2]
    PRAMANIK N K, HALDAR R S, BHARDWAJ Y K, et al. Radiation processing of nylon 6 by e-beam for improved properties and performance [J]. Radiation Physics and Chemistry, 2009, 78(3): 199–205.Google Scholar
  3. [3]
    VALENTINE L. Interaction of polyamides with solvents. I. A preliminary survey of the swelling of crosslinked nylon 66 in various types of solvents [J]. Journal of Polymer Science, Part A, 1957, 23(103): 297–314.Google Scholar
  4. [4]
    LUGÃO A B, HUTZLER B, OJEDA T, et al. Reaction mechanism and rheological properties of polypropylene irradiated under various atmospheres [J]. Radiation Physics and Chemistry, 2000, 57(3/4/5/6): 389–392.Google Scholar
  5. [5]
    CHARLESBY A. Effect of high-energy radiation on long-chain polymers [J]. Nature, 1953, 171(4343): 167.Google Scholar
  6. [6]
    LAWTON E J, BUECHE A M, BALWIT J S. Irradiation of polymers by high-energy electrons [J]. Nature, 1953, 172(4367): 76–77.Google Scholar
  7. [7]
    DADBIN S, FROUNCHI M, GOUDARZI D. Electron beam induced crosslinking of nylon 6 with and without the presence of TAC [J]. Polymer Degradation and Stability, 2005, 89(3): 436–441.Google Scholar
  8. [8]
    SHIN B Y, KIMJ H. Rheological and mechanical properties of polyamide 6 modified by electron-beam initiated mediation process [J]. Radiation Physics and Chemistry, 2015, 112: 88–96.Google Scholar
  9. [9]
    LEO C P, LINGGAWATI A, MOHAMMAD A W, et al. Effects of γ-aminopropyltriethoxylsilane on morphological characteristics of hybrid nylon-66-based membranes before electron beam irradiation [J]. Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 2011, 122(5): 3339–3350.Google Scholar
  10. [10]
    HUANG H, ZHANG X Y, LU H B. The chain segment motion and traps in γ-irradiation crystalline nylon 1010 [J]. Journal of Macromolecular Science, Part B, 2007, 46(6): 1105–1114.Google Scholar
  11. [11]
    BURILLO G, ADEM E, MUÑOZ E, et al. Electron beam irradiated polyamide-6 at different temperatures [J]. Radiation Physics and Chemistry, 2013, 84(3): 140–144.Google Scholar
  12. [12]
    ADEM E, BURILLO G, CASTILLO L F D, et al. Polyamide-6: The effects on mechanical and physicochemical properties by electron beam irradiation at different temperatures [J]. Radiation Physics and Chemistry, 2014, 97(2): 165–171.Google Scholar
  13. [13]
    BERNSTEIN B S, ODIAN G, ORBAN G, et al. Radiation crosslinking of nylon 66 and poly(vinyl alcohol) [J]. Journal of Polymer Science, Part A, 1965, 3(10): 3405–3412.Google Scholar
  14. [14]
    PRAMANIK N K, HALDAR R, NIYOGI U K, et al. Effect of electron beam irradiation on the kinetics of non-isothermal crystallization of nylon 66 [J]. Journal of Macromolecular Science, Part A, 2014, 51(4): 296–307.Google Scholar
  15. [15]
    PRAMANIK N K, HALDAR R S, BHARDWAJ Y K, et al. Radiation processing of nylon 6 by e-beam for improved properties and performance [J]. Radiation Physics and Chemistry, 2009, 78(3): 199–205.Google Scholar
  16. [16]
    PRAMANIK N K, HALDAR R S, BHARDWAJ Y K, et al. Modification of nylon 66 by electron beam irradiation for improved properties and superior performances [J]. Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 2011, 122(1): 193–202.Google Scholar
  17. [17]
    IIJIMA S. Helical microtubules of graphitic carbon [J]. Nature, 1991, 354(6348): 56–58.Google Scholar
  18. [18]
    SHEN Z Q, BATEMAN S, WU D Y, et al. The effects of carbon nanotubes on mechanical and thermal properties of woven glass fibre reinforced polyamide-6 nanocomposites [J]. Composites Science and Technology, 2009, 69(2): 239–244.Google Scholar
  19. [19]
    CHIU F C, KAO G F. Polyamide 46/multi-walled carbon nanotube nanocomposites with enhanced thermal, electrical, and mechanical properties [J]. Composites, Part A, 2012, 43(1): 208–218.Google Scholar
  20. [20]
    LIU J, RINZLER A G, DAI H J, et al. Fullerene pipes [J]. Science, 1998, 280(5367): 1253–1256.Google Scholar
  21. [21]
    AJAYAN P M. Nanotubes from carbon. [J]. Chemical Reviews, 1999, 99(7): 1787–1800.Google Scholar
  22. [22]
    BIANCO A, PRATO M. Can carbon nanotubes be considered useful tools for biological applications? [J]. Advanced Materials, 2003, 15(20): 1765–1768.Google Scholar
  23. [23]
    ZHANG W D, SHEN L, PHANG I Y, et al. Carbon nanotubes reinforced nylon-6 composite prepared by simple melt-compounding [J]. Macromolecules, 2004, 37(2): 256–259.Google Scholar
  24. [24]
    ZHAO C G, HU G J, JUSTICE R, et al. Synthesis and characterization of multi-walled carbon nanotubes reinforced polyamide 6 via in situ polymerization [J]. Polymer, 2005, 46(14): 5125–5132.Google Scholar
  25. [25]
    MENG H, SUI G X, FANG P F, et al. Effects of acidand diamine-modified MWNTs on the mechanical properties and crystallization behavior of polyamide 6 [J]. Polymer, 2008, 49(2): 610–620.Google Scholar
  26. [26]
    LIU H M, WANG X, FANG P F, et al. Functionalization of multi-walled carbon nanotubes grafted with self-generated functional groups and their polyamide 6 composites [J]. Carbon, 2010, 48(3): 721–729.Google Scholar
  27. [27]
    GHARIB-ZAHEDI M R, TAFAZZOLI M, BÖHM M C, et al. Interfacial thermal transport and structural preferences in carbon nanotube-polyamide-6, 6 nanocomposites: How important are chemical functionalization effects? [J]. Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, 2015, 17(22): 14502–14512.Google Scholar
  28. [28]
    KAYNAK C, SANKAL S. Effects of oxidative functionalization and aminosilanization of carbon nanotubes on the mechanical and thermal properties of polyamide 6 nanocomposites [J]. Journal of Thermoplastic Composite Materials, 2015, 28(9): 1321–1333.Google Scholar
  29. [29]
    NASEFMM, SAIDI H, DAHLAN K Z M. Preparation of composite polymer electrolytes by electron beaminduced grafting: Proton-and lithium ion-conducting membranes [J]. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B, 2007, 265(1): 168–172.Google Scholar
  30. [30]
    LIU F, DU C H, ZHU B K, et al. Surface immobilization of polymer brushes onto porous poly(vinylidene fluoride) membrane by electron beam to improve the hydrophilicity and fouling resistance [J]. Polymer, 2007, 48(10): 2910–2918.Google Scholar
  31. [31]
    KIM H, ABDALA A A, MACOSKO C W. Graphene/polymer nanocomposites [J]. Macromolecules, 2010, 43(16): 6515–6530.Google Scholar
  32. [32]
    IMAM M A, GOMES M G, MOURA E A B, et al. Effect of electron-beam irradiation on nylon-6/diamond coated CNTs composite fiber [C]//Proceedings of SAMPE Tech 2013 Conference and Exhibition. Wichita, USA: Society for the Advancement of Material and Process Engineering, 2013: 1–10.Google Scholar
  33. [33]
    IMAM M A, JEELANI S, RANGARI V K, et al. Electron-beam irradiation effect on thermal and mechanical properties of nylon-6 nanocomposite fibers infused with diamond and diamond coated carbon nanotubes [J]. International Journal of Nanoscience, 2016, 15(1/2): 1650004.Google Scholar
  34. [34]
    SENGUPTA R, SABHARWAL S, TIKKU V K, et al. Effect of ambient-temperature and high-temperature electron-beam radiation on the structural, thermal, mechanical, and dynamic mechanical properties of injection-molded polyamide-6, 6 [J]. Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 2006, 99(4): 1633–1644.Google Scholar
  35. [35]
    CHARLESBY A, PINNER S H. Analysis of the solubility behaviour of irradiated polyethylene and other polymers [J]. Proceedings of the Royal Society A, 1959, 249(1258): 367–386.Google Scholar
  36. [36]
    SENGUPTA R, TIKKU V K, SOMANI A K, et al. Electron beam irradiated polyamide-6, 6 films. I. Characterization by wide angle X-ray scattering and infrared spectroscopy [J]. Radiation Physics and Chemistry, 2005, 72(5): 625–633.Google Scholar
  37. [37]
    KUMAR N A, GANAPATHY H S, KIM J S, et al. Preparation of poly 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate functionalized carbon nanotubes as novel biomaterial nanocomposites [J]. European Polymer Journal, 2008, 44(3): 579–586.Google Scholar
  38. [38]
    SREENIVASAN K. An aqueous process to graft 2-hydroxyl ethyl methacrylate onto polyvinyl chloride through its functional group [J]. Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 2015, 74(1): 113–118.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Shanghai Jiaotong University and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Chengwen Cui (崔成文)
    • 1
  • Yuting Chen (陈禹廷)
    • 1
  • Yong Zhang (张勇)
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering; State Key Laboratory of Metal Matrix CompositesShanghai Jiao Tong UniversityShanghaiChina

Personalised recommendations