A Novel Nanoconjugate of Landomycin A with C60 Fullerene for Cancer Targeted Therapy: In Vitro Studies
Landomycins are a subgroup of angucycline antibiotics that are produced by Streptomyces bacteria and possess strong antineoplastic potential. Literature data suggest that enhancement of the therapeutic activity of this drug may be achieved by means of creating specific drug delivery systems. Here we propose to adopt C60 fullerene as flexible and stable nanocarrier for landomycin delivery into tumor cells.
The methods of molecular modelling, dynamic light scattering and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were used to study the assembly of C60 fullerene and the anticancer drug Landomycin A (LA) in aqueous solution. Cytotoxic activity of this nanocomplex was studied in vitro towards two cancer cell lines in comparison to human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) using 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2-H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) test and a live/dead assay. The morphology of the cells incubated with fullerene–drug nanoparticles and their uptake into target cells were studied by scanning electron microscopy and fluorescence light microscopy.
The viability of primary cells (hMSCs, as a model for healthy cells) and cancer cell lines (human osteosarcoma cells, MG-63, and mouse mammary cells, 4T1, as models for cancer cells) was studied after incubation with water-soluble C60 fullerenes, LA and the mixture C60 + LA. The C60 + LA nanocomplex in contrast to LA alone showed higher toxicity towards cancer cells and lower toxicity towards normal cells, whereas the water-soluble C60 fullerenes at the same concentration were not toxic for the cells.
The obtained physico-chemical data indicate a complexation between the two compounds, leading to the formation of a C60 + LA nanocomposite. It was concluded that immobilization of LA on C60 fullerene enhances selectivity of action of this anticancer drug in vitro, indicating on possibility of further preclinical studies of novel C60 + LA nanocomposites on animal tumor models.
KeywordsC60 fullerene Landomycin A Complexation Cytotoxicity Membranotropic effect Molecular modelling Dynamic light scattering Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy Scanning electron microscopy Fluorescence microscopy
Mouse mammary cells
C60 fullerene aqueous solution
4′, 6 Diamidino 2 phenylindole
Dynamic light scattering
Dulbecco’s modified eagle medium
Enhanced permeability and retention
Fetal calf serum
Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy
Human mesenchymal stem cells
Human osteosarcoma cells
Scanning electron microscopy
V. Bilobrov is grateful to DAAD for financial support within the framework of the Leonhard-Euler Program. This work was partially supported by STCU Project N6256 and state support to Leading Research Group 5889.2018.3.
Conflict of interest
V. Bilobrov, V. Sokolova, S. Prylutska, R. Panchuk, O. Litsis, V. Osetskyi, M. Evstigneev, Yu. Prylutskyy, M. Epple, U. Ritter, J. Rohr declare that they have no conflicts of interest.
Neither human studies, nor animal studies were carried out by the authors for this article.
The work presented here was carried out in collaboration between all the authors. RP, JR, VO and YP created and characterized nanomaterials. VB and VS performed in vitro and fluorescence microscopy studies. OL and SP characterized nanomaterials using FTIR analysis. ME performed the computer simulations. UR synthesized and characterized C60FAS. M. Epple and YP coordinated the experimental work, analyzed the data, performed the statistical analysis, and wrote the manuscript. All authors discussed the results and commented on the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
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