Radiological Physics and Technology

, Volume 12, Issue 1, pp 96–104 | Cite as

Assessment of exposure after injection of 99mTc-labeled intact monoclonal antibodies and their fragments into humans

  • Mostafa Y. A. MostafaEmail author
  • Hesham M. H. Zakaly
  • Michael Zhukovsky


Human pharmacokinetics and internal radiation dosimetry of normal organs after injection with the 99mTc-labeled monoclonal antibody (intact and fragments) are simulated by the WinAct program and IDAC (Internal Dose Assessment by Computer) software. The WinAct program is used to calculate the cumulative activity in organs and tissues. The calculated cumulative activity is inputted to the IDAC software, an internal dosimetry program for nuclear medicine based on the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) adult reference voxel phantom, and the absorbed doses by the organs and tissues are estimated. The obtained absorbed doses for the 99mTc-labeled monoclonal antibody (intact and fragments) are compared with the published figures by ICRP-128. The WinAct program method to calculate the cumulative activity is more accurate, as the fraction distribution, Fs, is described and calculated for organs, not only for intake, as in the ICRP model, but also for elimination.


Internal exposure 99mTc Cumulative activity Monoclonal antibodies Absorbed dose 



The work was partly supported by Act 211 of the Government of the Russian Federation (contract no 02. A03.21.0006) and the Centre of Excellence: Radiation and Nuclear Technologies.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

Mostafa Y.A. Mostafa has received research grants from Act 211 of the Government of the Russian Federation (contract no 02. A03.21.0006) and the Centre of Excellence: Radiation and Nuclear Technologies. Hesham M.H. Zakaly declares that he has no conflict of interest. Michael Zhukovsky declares that he has no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

This article does not contain any studies on human participants or animals.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.


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Copyright information

© Japanese Society of Radiological Technology and Japan Society of Medical Physics 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Experimental Physics, Institute of Physics and TechnologyUral Federal UniversityYekaterinburgRussia
  2. 2.Institute of Industrial ecology UB RASYekaterinburgRussia
  3. 3.Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Assuit BranchAl-Azhar UniversityAssuitEgypt
  4. 4.Department of Physics, Faculty of ScienceMinia UniversityEl-MiniaEgypt

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