Cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans are involved in the extracellular Hsp90-stimulated migration and invasion of cancer cells
The extracellular heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is known to participate in cell migration and invasion. Recently, we have shown that cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) are involved in the binding and anchoring of extracellular Hsp90 to the plasma membrane, but the biological relevance of this finding was unclear. Here, we demonstrated that the digestion of heparan sulfate (HS) moieties of HSPGs with a heparinase I/III blend and the metabolic inhibition of the sulfation of HS chains by sodium chlorate considerably impair the migration and invasion of human glioblastoma A-172 and fibrosarcoma HT1080 cells stimulated by extracellular native Hsp90. Heparin, a polysaccharide closely related to HS, also reduced the Hsp90-stimulated migration and invasion of cells. Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, an intracellular inducer of cell motility bypassing the ligand activation of receptors, restored the basal migration of heparinase- and chlorate-treated cells almost to the control level, suggesting that the cell motility machinery was insignificantly affected in cells with degraded and undersulfated HS chains. On the other hand, the downstream phosphorylation of AKT in response to extracellular Hsp90 was substantially impaired in heparinase- and chlorate-treated cells as compared to untreated cells. Taken together, our results demonstrated for the first time that cell surface HSPGs play an important role in the migration and invasion of cancer cells stimulated by extracellular Hsp90 and that plasma membrane-associated HSPGs are required for the efficient transmission of signal from extracellular Hsp90 into the cell.
KeywordsCell surface HSPGs Extracellular Hsp90 Hsp90-stimulated cell migration Hsp90-stimulated cell invasion
We thank A.O. Shepelyakovskaya for the help with flow cytometry.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflicts of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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