Cell Stress and Chaperones

, Volume 23, Issue 4, pp 735–748 | Cite as

Vitamin C and sodium bicarbonate enhance the antioxidant ability of H9C2 cells and induce HSPs to relieve heat stress

  • Bin Yin
  • Shu Tang
  • Jiarui Sun
  • Xiaohui Zhang
  • Jiao Xu
  • Liangjiao Di
  • Zhihong Li
  • Yurong Hu
  • Endong BaoEmail author
Original Paper


Heat stress is exacerbated by global warming and affects human and animal health, leading to heart damage caused by imbalances in reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the antioxidant system, acid-base chemistry, electrolytes and respiratory alkalosis. Vitamin C scavenges excess ROS, and sodium bicarbonate maintains acid-base and electrolyte balance, and alleviates respiratory alkalosis. Herein, we explored the ability of vitamin C alone and in combination with equimolar sodium bicarbonate (Vitamin C-Na) to stimulate endogenous antioxidants and heat shock proteins (HSPs) to relieve heat stress in H9C2 cells. Control, vitamin C (20 μg/ml vitamin C for 16 h) and vitamin C-Na (20 μg/ml vitamin C-Na for 16 h) groups were heat-stressed for 1, 3 or 5 h. Granular and vacuolar degeneration, karyopyknosis and damage to nuclei and mitochondria were clearly reduced in treatment groups, as were apoptosis, lactate dehydrogenase activity and ROS and malondialdehyde levels, while superoxide dismutase activity was increased. Additionally, CRYAB, Hsp27, Hsp60 and Hsp70 mRNA levels were upregulated at 3 h (p < 0.01), and protein levels were increased for CRYAB at 0 h (p < 0.05) and 1 h (p < 0.01), and for Hsp70 at 3 and 5 h (p < 0.01). Thus, pre-treatment with vitamin C or vitamin C-Na might protect H9C2 cells against heat damage by enhancing the antioxidant ability and upregulating CRYAB and Hsp70.


Vitamin C Sodium bicarbonate Heat stress Antioxidant H9C2 cells ROS 



The current study was supported by grants from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (grant no. 31672520), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (grant no. KJQN201709), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (grant no. 31602027), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (grant no. 31372403), Jiangsu Natural Science Foundation of China (grant no. BK20160732), China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (2016M591860) and the Priority Academic Program Development of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions, Graduate Research and Innovation Projects in Jiangsu Province.


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Copyright information

© Cell Stress Society International 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.College of Veterinary MedicineNanjing Agricultural UniversityNanjingChina
  2. 2.Ningxia Zhihong Biotechnology CompanyYinchuanChina
  3. 3.Ningxia Animal Disease Prevention and Control CenterYinchuanChina
  4. 4.Guyuan Animal Disease Prevention and Control CenterGuyuanChina

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