Sleep Duration Change and its Associated Factors During Adolescence: a 6 Year Longitudinal Study

  • Changmin YooEmail author


This study examined the developmental trajectory of sleep duration, and analyzed how this trajectory was associated with predictors among South Korean children. For these purposes, we used hierarchical linear modeling analysis involving 2257 subjects who participated in the Korean Children and Youth Panel Survey from 2010 to 2015 (i.e., ages 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, and 16 years; 50% girls). The results showed that sleep duration decreased over 6-years. Children with more time spent taking after-school classes and doing after-school homework had shorter sleep duration than their counterparts initially and these differences were maintained over time. When time spent on after-school classes and after-school homework increased by 1 h, sleep duration decreased by 0.071 h and 0.082 h, respectively. However, electronic media factors were not associated with the sleep duration trajectory. These results suggest that factors affecting children sleep may be different depending on the culture in which they live.


Children Insufficient sleep duration Private tutoring learning time Hierarchical linear model 



This work was supported by the Ministry of Education of the Republic of Korea and the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF-2018S1A5B5A01028326).

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest



  1. Armsden, G. C., & Greenberg, M. T. (1987). The inventory of parent and peer attachment: individual differences and their relationship to psychological well-being in adolescence. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 16(5), 427–454.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Asarnow, L. D., McGlinchey, E., & Harvey, A. G. (2014). The effects of bedtime and sleep duration on academic and emotional outcomes in a nationally representative sample of adolescents. Journal of Adolescent Health, 54(3), 350–356.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Brand, S., & Kirov, R. (2011). Sleep and its importance in adolescence and in common adolescent somatic and psychiatric conditions. International Journal of General Medicine, 4, 425–442.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Buckhalt, J. A., & Suh, S. (2014). Research on sleep of children and adolescents: implications for east Asian counselors. Journal of Asia Pacific Counseling, 4(1), 1–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Cain, N., & Gradisar, M. (2010). Electronic media use and sleep in school-aged children and adolescents: a review. Sleep Medicine, 11, 735–742.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cho, H. I., & Kim, Y. S. (2016). The longitudinal study on the effects of learning time and academic achievement changes on motivational and behavioural regulations of secondary school students. Korean Journal of Educational Psychology, 30(1), 225–253.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Choi, Y. (2015). University student’s experience of private tutoring for higher education admission. Korean Journal of Sociology of Education, 25(4), 83–124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Choi, I. J., & Lee, G. B. (2010). Korea Youth Indicators Survey: International Comparison Survey of Youth Health Status (Comparison of Korea, US, Japan, and Japan). Korea Youth Policy Institute Report. 12. 1–142. Retrieved from Accessed 25 June 2018.
  9. Chung, K. F., & Cheung, M. M. (2008). Sleep-wake patterns and sleep disturbance among Hong Kong Chinese adolescents. Sleep, 31(2), 185–194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Dregan, A., & Armstrong, D. (2010). Adolescence sleep disturbances as predictors of adulthood sleep disturbances—a cohort study. Journal of Adolescent Health, 46(5), 482–487.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Fitzgerald, C. T., Messias, E., & Buysse, D. J. (2011). Teen sleep and suicidality: results from the youth risk behavior surveys of 2007 and 2009. Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine, 7(4), 351–356.Google Scholar
  12. Foreman, M. D., & Wykle, M. (1995). Nursing standard-of practice-protocol: sleep disturbance in elderly patients. Geriatric Nursing, 16, 238–243.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Gangwisch, J. E., Babiss, L. A., Malaspina, D., Turner, J. B., Zammit, G. K., & Posner, K. (2010). Earlier parental set bedtimes as a protective factor against depression and suicidal ideation. Sleep, 33(1), 97–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Gradisar, M., Gardner, G., & Dohnt, H. (2011). Recent worldwide sleep patterns and problems during adolescence: a review and meta-analysis of age, region, and sleep. Sleep Medicine, 12(2), 110–118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Hsu, F. L. K. (1971). Under the ancestors’ shadow: kinship, personality, and social mobility in China. Stanford: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  16. Jeong, J. H., Jang, Y. E., Lee, H. W., Shim, H. B., & Choi, J. S. (2013). Sleep and suicidal risk factors in Korean high school students. Sleep Medicine and Psychophysiology, 20(1), 22–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Jin, J., & Ko, H. (2013). The Korean suicide rate trend by population group comparing with the OECD countries and its policy implications. Health and Welfare Policy Forum, 195, 141–154. Retrieved from Accessed 3 July 2018.
  18. Krug, E. G., Dahlberg, L. L., Mercy, J. A., Zwi, A., & Lozano, R. (2002). World report on violence and health. Geneva: World Health Organization.Google Scholar
  19. Kang, S., Lee, Y., Kim, S., Lim, W., Lee, H., Park, Y., Cho, I., Cho, S., & Hong, J. (2014). Weekend catch up sleep is independently associated with suicide attempts and self-injury in Korean adolescents. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 55(2), 319–325.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Kaplan, H. I, & Sadock, B. J. (1988). Synopsis of psychiatry: behavioural sciences/clinical psychiatry (5th edn). Williams & Wilkins. p 381.Google Scholar
  21. Kim, K., & Kim, H. (2014). Study on human rights of Korean children IV: 2014. Seoul: Korea National Youth Policy Institute. Retrieved from Accessed 10 July 2018.
  22. Kim, S. J., Lee, Y. J., Cho, S. J., Cho, I. H., Lim, W., & Lim, W. (2011). Relationship between weekend catch-up sleep and poor performance on attention tasks in Korean adolescents. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 165(9), 806–812.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Kubiszewski, V., Fontaine, R., Rusch, E., & Hazouard, E. (2013). Association between electronic media use and sleep habits: an eight-day follow-up study. International Journal of Adolescence and Youth, 19(3), 395–407.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Lee, S., Kim, H., & Na, E. (2002). A study on the usage and influence of youth mobile phone. Seoul: Samsung Life Public Interest Foundation Social Mental Health Institute. Retrieved from Accessed 13 June 2018.
  25. Lee, J., Kang, J., Rhie, S., & Chae, K. Y. (2013). Impact of sleep duration on emotional status in adolescents. Journal of Korea Child Neurology Society, 21(3), 100–110.Google Scholar
  26. Lemola, S., Perkinson-Gloor, N., Brand, S., Dewald-Kaufmann, J. F., & Grob, A. (2015). Adolescents’ electronic media use at night, sleep disturbance, and depressive symptoms in the smartphone age. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 44, 405–418.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Li, S., Zhu, S., Jin, X., Yan, C., Wu, S., Jiang, F., & Shen, X. (2010). Risk factors associated with shorter sleep duration among Chinese school-aged children. Sleep Medicine, 11, 907–916.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Lindberg, E., Janson, C., Gislason, T., Bjornsson, E., Hetta, J., & Boman, G. (1997). Sleep disturbances in a young adult population: can gender differences be explained by differences in psychological status? Sleep, 20, 381–387.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Maume, D. J. (2013). Social ties and adolescent sleep disruption. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 54(4), 498–515.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. National Sleep Foundation. (2017). Sleep in America poll. Exploring connections with communications technology use and sleep. Washington, DC: National Sleep Foundation.Google Scholar
  31. Park, H. (2015). Effect of sleep duration on suicidal ideation in Korean adolescents. The Journal of the Korean Society of School Health, 28(1), 1–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Park, J. I., Park, C. U., Seo, H., & Youm, Y. S. (2010). Collection of Korean child well-being index and its international comparison with other OECD countries. Korean Journal of Sociology, 44(2), 121–154.Google Scholar
  33. Raudenbush, S. W., & Bryk, A. S. (2002). Hierarchical linear models: Applications and data analysis methods. London New Delhi: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  34. Redeker, N. S., Ruggiero, J. S., & Hedges, C. (2004). Sleep is related to physical function and emotional well-being after cardiac surgery. Nursing Research, 53(3), 154–162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Rhie, S., Lee, S., & Chae, K. Y. (2011). Sleep patterns and school performance of Korean adolescents assessed using a Korean version of the pediatric daytime sleepiness scale. Korean Journal of Pediatrics, 54(1), 29–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Sarchiapone, M., Mandelli, L., Carli, V., & Wasserman, D. (2014). Hours of sleep in adolescents and its association with anxiety, emotional concerns and suicidal ideation. Sleep Medicine, 15(2), 248–254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Stamatakis, K. A., Kaplan, G. A., & Roberts, R. E. (2007). Short sleep duration across income, education, and race/ethnic groups: population prevalence and growing disparities during 34 years of follow-up. Annals of Epidemiology, 17, 948–955.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Taylor, D. J., Jenni, O. G., Acebo, C., & Carskadon, M. A. (2005). Sleep tendency during extended wakefulness: insights into adolescent sleep regulation and behavior. Journal of Sleep Research, 14(3), 239–244.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Thomee, S., Harenstam, A., & Hagberg, M. (2012). Computer use and stress, sleep disturbances, and symptoms of depression among young adults: a prospective cohort study. BMC Psychiatry, 12(1), 176–189.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Wolfson, A. R., & Carskadon, M. A. (1998). Sleep schedules and daytime functioning in adolescents. Child Development, 69(4), 875–887.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Wolfson, A. R., & Carskadon, M. A. (2003). Understanding adolescent’s sleep patterns and school performance: a critical appraisal. Sleep Medicine Reviews, 7(6), 491–506.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Wong, M. M., Brower, K. J., & Zucker, R. A. (2011). Sleep problems, suicidal ideation, and self-harm behaviors in adolescence. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 45(4), 505–511.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Woods, H. C., & Scott, H. (2016). Sleepyteens: social media use in adolescence is associated with poor sleep quality, anxiety, depression and low self-esteem. Journal of Adolescence, 51, 41–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. World Health Organization (1999). Report of the consultation on child abuse prevention, 29–31 March 1999, WHO, Geneva. Geneva: World Health Organization.Google Scholar
  45. Yang, C. K., Kim, J. K., Patel, S. R., & Lee, J. H. (2005). Agerelated changes in sleep/wake patterns among Korean teenagers. Pediatrics, 115(1), 250–256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Social WelfareEwha Womans UniversitySeoulRepublic of Korea

Personalised recommendations