International Journal of Hematology

, Volume 110, Issue 4, pp 438–446 | Cite as

The Glasgow Prognostic Score is a significant predictor of peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL) treated with CHOP-based chemotherapy and comparable with PTCL prognostic scores

  • Seok Jae Huh
  • Sung Yong OhEmail author
  • Suee Lee
  • Ji Hyun Lee
  • Sung Hyun Kim
  • Gyeong-Won Lee
  • Seok Jin Kim
  • Won Seog Kim
  • Ho Sup Lee
  • Jae-Cheol JoEmail author
  • Moon Jin Kim
  • Jung Hye Kwon
  • Hyo-Jin Kim
Original Article


The Glasgow Prognostic Score (GPS) serves a prognostic role in several lymphomas. The objectives of the present study were to determine whether GPS predicts clinical outcomes and to compare the utility of four prognostic scores, including GPS, in patients diagnosed with peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL). We selected for this retrospective study 96 patients consecutively diagnosed with PTCL according to the World Health Organization classification from January 2002 to February 2013 and followed up in five different institutions. Low GPS was a good prognostic biomarker of progression-free survival (PFS, P = 0.030) and overall survival (OS, P = 0.013). Estimated 3-year OS rates (low-risk vs. intermediate- or high-risk) by the International Prognostic Index (IPI), the Prognostic Index for T-cell lymphoma (PIT), the International Peripheral T-cell Lymphoma Project (IPTCLP) score, and GPS were 83% vs. 44% (P < 0.001), 68% vs. 37% (P = 0.004), 71% vs. 26% (P < 0.001) and 68% vs. 51% (P = 0.031), respectively. These results indicate that GPS has prognostic value for PTCL. In addition, all four prognostic scores demonstrate their usefulness in assessing PTCL outcomes.


Peripheral T-cell lymphoma Glasgow Prognostic Score Prognostic scores 



This work was supported by the Dong-A University Research Fund.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


  1. 1.
    A clinical evaluation of the International Lymphoma Study Group classification of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Blood. 1997;89:3909–18.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Anderson JR, Armitage JO, Weisenburger DD. Epidemiology of the non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas: distributions of the major subtypes differ by geographic locations. Ann Oncol. 1998;9:717–20.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Harris ME. International peripheral T-cell and natural killer/T-cell lymphoma study: pathology findings and clinical outcomes. J Clin Oncol. 2008;26:4124–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Armitage JO. The aggressive peripheral T-cell lymphomas. Am J Hematol. 2015;90:665–73.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Gallamini A, Stelitano C, Calvi R, Bellei M, Mattei D, Vitolo U, et al. Peripheral T-cell lymphoma unspecified (PTCL-U): a new prognostic model from a retrospective multicentric clinical study. Blood. 2004;103:2474–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Balkwill F. Mantovani A inflammation and cancer: back to Virchow? Lancet. 2001;357:539–45.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Mantovani A, Allavena P, Sica A. Balkwill F cancer-related inflammation. Nature. 2008;454:436–44.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Grivennikov SI, Greten FR, Karin M. Immunity, inflammation, and cancer. Cell. 2010;140:883–99.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    McMillan DC. Systemic inflammation, nutritional status and survival in patients with cancer. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2009;12:223–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Nozoe T, Matono R, Ijichi H, Ohga T, Ezaki T. Glasgow Prognostic Score (GPS) can be a useful indicator to determine prognosis of patients with colorectal carcinoma. Int Surg. 2014;99:512.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Gao Y, Huang D. The value of the systematic inflammation-based Glasgow Prognostic Score in patients with gastric cancer: a literature review. J Cancer Res Ther. 2014;10:799.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Partridge M, Fallon M, Bray C, McMillan D, Brown D, Laird B. Prognostication in advanced cancer: a study examining an inflammation-based score. J Pain Symptom Manage. 2012;44:161–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    McMillan DC. The systemic inflammation-based Glasgow Prognostic Score: a decade of experience in patients with cancer. Cancer Treat Rev. 2013;39:534–40.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Proctor MJ, Morrison DS, Talwar D, Balmer SM, Fletcher CD, O’Reilly DSJ, et al. A comparison of inflammation-based prognostic scores in patients with cancer. A Glasgow Inflammation Outcome Study. Eur J Cancer. 2011;47:2633–41.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Shipp M, Harrington D, Anderson J, Armitage JO, Bonadonna G, Brittinger G, et al. A predictive model for aggressive non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. N Engl J Med. 1993;329:987–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Weisenburger DD, Savage KJ, Harris NL, Gascoyne RD, Jaffe ES, MacLennan KA, et al. Peripheral T-cell lymphoma, not otherwise specified: a report of 340 cases from the International Peripheral T-cell Lymphoma Project. Blood. 2011;117:3402–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Shipp M. A predictive model for aggressive non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. The international non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma prognostic factors project. N Engl J Med. 1993;329:987–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Federico M, Bellei M, Marcheselli L, Schwartz M, Manni M, Tarantino V, et al. Peripheral T cell lymphoma, not otherwise specified (PTCL-NOS). A new prognostic model developed by the International T cell Project Network. Br J Haematol. 2018;181:760–9.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Gutierrez-Garcia G, Garcia-Herrera A, Cardesa T, Martinez A, Villamor N, Ghita G, et al. Comparison of four prognostic scores in peripheral T-cell lymphoma. Ann Oncol. 2011;22:397–404.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Kim Y, Kim SJ, Hwang D, Jang J, Hyun SY, Kim YR, et al. The modified Glasgow Prognostic Scores as a predictor in diffuse large B cell lymphoma treated with R-CHOP regimen. Yonsei Med J. 2014;55:1568–75.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Li X, Zhang Y, Zhao W, Liu Z, Shen Y, Li J, et al. The Glasgow Prognostic Score as a significant predictor of diffuse large B cell lymphoma treated with R-CHOP in China. Ann Hematol. 2015;94:57–63.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Kanemasa Y, Shimoyama T, Sasaki Y, Sawada T, Omuro Y, Hishima T, et al. A convenient prognostic score consisting of the Glasgow prognostic score and serum lactate dehydrogenase predicts clinical outcome in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Leuk Lymphoma. 2016;57:2460–3.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Jung S-H, Yang D-H, Ahn J-S, Kim Y-K, Kim H-J, Lee J-J. Serum lactate dehydrogenase with a systemic inflammation score is useful for predicting response and survival in patients with newly diagnosed diffuse large B-Cell lymphoma. Acta Haematol. 2015;133:10–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Li YJ, Jiang WQ, Huang JJ, Xia ZJ, Huang HQ, Li ZM. The Glasgow Prognostic Score (GPS) as a novel and significant predictor of extranodal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type. Am J Hematol. 2013;88:394–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Marnell L, Mold C, Du Clos TW. C-reactive protein: ligands, receptors and role in inflammation. Clin Immunol. 2005;117:104–11.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Raziuddin S, Sheikha A, Abu-Eshy S, Al-Janadi M. Cir45 culating levels of cytokines and soluble cytokine receptors in various T-cell malignancies. Cancer. 1994;73:2426–31.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Wang J, Zhou M, Wang X, Xu J, Chen B, Ouyang J. Pretreatment C-reactive protein was an independent prognostic factor for patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma treated with RCHOP. Clin Chim Acta. 2016;459:150–4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Adams HJ, De Klerk JM, Fijnheer R, Heggelman BG, Dubois SV, Nievelstein RA, et al. Prognostic value of anemia and C-reactive protein levels in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Clin Lymphoma Myeloma Leuk. 2015;15:671–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Gage JR, Fonarow G, Hamilton M, Widawski M, Martínez-Maza O, Vredevoe DL. Beta blocker and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor therapy is associated with decreased Th1/Th2 cytokine ratios and inflammatory cytokine production in patients with chronic heart failure. NeuroImmunoModulation. 2004;11:173–80.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Gortney JS, Sanders RM. Impact of C-reactive protein on treatment of patients with cardiovascular disease. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2007;64:2009–16.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Koukourakis MI, Kambouromiti G, Pitsiava D, Tsousou P, Tsiarkatsi M, Kartalis G. Serum C-reactive protein (CRP) levels in cancer patients are linked with tumor burden and are reduced by anti-hypertensive medication. Inflammation. 2009;32:169–75.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Lee C, Adler A, Sandhu M, Sharp S, Forouhi N, Erqou S, et al. Association of C-reactive protein with type 2 diabetes: prospective analysis and meta-analysis. Diabetologia. 2009;52:1040–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Gupta D, Lis CG. Pretreatment serum albumin as a predictor of cancer survival: a systematic review of the epidemiological literature. Nutr J. 2010;9:69.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Mercadal S, Briones J, Xicoy B, Pedro C, Escoda L, Estany C, et al. Intensive chemotherapy (high-dose CHOP/ESHAP regimen) followed by autologous stem-cell transplantation in previously untreated patients with peripheral T-cell lymphoma. Ann Oncol. 2008;19:958–63.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Jantunen E, d’Amore F. Stem cell transplantation for peripheral T-cell lymphomas. Leuk Lymphoma. 2004;45:441–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Corradini P, Tarella C, Zallio F, Dodero A, Zanni M, Valagussa P, et al. Long-term follow-up of patients with peripheral T-cell lymphomas treated up-front with high-dose chemotherapy followed by autologous stem cell transplantation. Leukemia. 2006;20:1533–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Rüdiger T, Weisenburger D, Anderson J, Armitage J, Diebold J, MacLennan K, et al. Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma Classification Project: Peripheral T-cell lymphoma (excluding anaplastic large-cell lymphoma): results from the Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma Classification Project. Ann Oncol. 2002;13:140–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Vose J, The International PTCL Project. International peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL) clinical and pathologic review project: poor outcome by prognostic indices and lack of efficacy with anthracyclines. Blood. 2005;2005(106):611–3.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Iqbal J, Weisenburger DD, Greiner TC, Vose JM, McKeithan T, Kucuk C, et al. Molecular signatures to improve diagnosis in peripheral T-cell lymphoma and prognostication in angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma. Blood. 2010;115:1026–36.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Went P, Agostinelli C, Gallamini A, Piccaluga PP, Ascani S, Sabattini E, et al. Marker expression in peripheral T-cell lymphoma: a proposed clinical-pathologic prognostic score. J Clin Oncol. 2006;24:2472–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Japanese Society of Hematology 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Seok Jae Huh
    • 1
  • Sung Yong Oh
    • 1
    Email author
  • Suee Lee
    • 1
  • Ji Hyun Lee
    • 1
  • Sung Hyun Kim
    • 1
  • Gyeong-Won Lee
    • 2
  • Seok Jin Kim
    • 3
  • Won Seog Kim
    • 3
  • Ho Sup Lee
    • 4
  • Jae-Cheol Jo
    • 5
    Email author
  • Moon Jin Kim
    • 6
  • Jung Hye Kwon
    • 7
  • Hyo-Jin Kim
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Internal MedicineDong-A University College of MedicineBusanSouth Korea
  2. 2.Department of Internal MedicineGyeongsang National University HospitalJinjuSouth Korea
  3. 3.Department of MedicineSamsung Medical CenterSeoulSouth Korea
  4. 4.Department of Internal MedicineKosin University Gospel HospitalBusanSouth Korea
  5. 5.Department of Hematology and OncologyUniversity of Ulsan College of MedicineUlsanSouth Korea
  6. 6.Division of Hematology-Oncology, Department of MedicineMyongji HospitalGyeonggidoSouth Korea
  7. 7.Department of Internal MedicineKangdong Sacred Heart HospitalSeoulSouth Korea

Personalised recommendations