Combined Anterior Cruciate Ligament and Medial Collateral Ligament Knee Injuries: Anatomy, Diagnosis, Management Recommendations, and Return to Sport
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Purpose of review
The diagnosis and management of combined anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and medial collateral ligament (MCL) injuries have been a controversial topic for several decades. No single approach has proven optimal for treatment and there is no consensus between most specialists. This review seeks to describe and clarify the current state and the future of management.
Most authors agree on reconstructing of the ACL with non-operative management of the MCL in grade I and II injuries, respectively. However, controversy still exists about the optimal method of treating a combined ACL with higher grade MCL injuries.
Management should be customized based on acuity, injury grade, and specific goals for each patient. Future research with clinical outcomes may facilitate creating guidelines to optimize recovery.
KeywordsAnterior cruciate ligament Medial collateral ligament Combined injuries
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
Joshua L. Elkin, Edgar Zamora, and Robert A. Gallo have not received (or agreed to receive) from a commercial entity something of value (exceeding the equivalent of US$500) related in any way to this manuscript.
Robert A. Gallo received institutional research support from Aesculap for a novel cartilage scaffold trial. Dr. Gallo is a section editor for Current Reviews in Musculoskeletal Medicine.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: •• Of major importance
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