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Review of the Management of Pediatric Post-Concussion Syndrome—a Multi-Disciplinary, Individualized Approach

  • Mitul KapadiaEmail author
  • Alison Scheid
  • Eric Fine
  • Rachel Zoffness
Concussion (C Senter and M Kapadia, Section Editors)
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Concussion

Abstract

Purpose of Review

Post-concussion syndrome (PCS), when the patient’s concussion symptoms last longer than 4–6 weeks, affects 10–30% of concussion patients. PCS presents a significant source of morbidity to patients and a management challenge to providers. In this review, we present the current evidence and best management approaches for pediatric PCS.

Recent Findings

There is limited high-quality evidence in pediatric PCS. There is some evidence supporting pharmaceutical management of post-traumatic headaches, cognitive symptoms, and emotional symptoms. Vestibular-ocular dysfunction should be evaluated and managed appropriately. Neuropsychological recovery is expected, but requires appropriate attention to Return to Learn. Emotional symptoms are common in PCS and the evidence supports treatment with cognitive behavioral therapy.

Summary

PCS presents a unique therapeutic challenge affecting multiple domains for patients—physical, sleep, cognitive, and emotional. Successful management of PCS requires a multi-disciplinary and individualized approach. There remains a significant need for further research, specifically looking into the outcomes and effective interventions in pediatric PCS.

Keywords

Post-concussion syndrome Mild traumatic brain injury Pediatric concussion Post-traumatic headache Cognitive behavioral therapy 

Notes

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Mitul Kapadia, Alison Scheid, Eric Fine, and Rachel Zoffness each declare no potential conflicts of interest.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.

References

Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mitul Kapadia
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Alison Scheid
    • 3
  • Eric Fine
    • 4
  • Rachel Zoffness
    • 5
  1. 1.Division of Pediatric Rehabilitation Medicine, Mission HallUCSF Benioff Children’s HospitalSan FranciscoUSA
  2. 2.University of CaliforniaSan FranciscoUSA
  3. 3.Department of Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation ScienceUniversity of CaliforniaSan FranciscoUSA
  4. 4.Department of NeurologyUniversity of CaliforniaSan FranciscoUSA
  5. 5.BerkeleyUSA

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