The Pivot Shift: Current Experimental Methodology and Clinical Utility for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Rupture and Associated Injury
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Purpose of Review
The purpose of this manuscript is to (1) examine the history, techniques, and methodology behind quantitative pivot shift investigations to date and (2) review the current status of pivot shift research for its clinical utility for management of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture with associated injuries including the anterolateral complex (ALC).
The pivot shift is a useful physical exam maneuver for diagnosis of rotatory instability related to ACL tear. Recent evidence suggests that the pivot shift is multifactorial and can be seen in the presence of ACL tear with concomitant injury to secondary stabilizers or with predisposing anatomical factors.
The presence of a pivot shift post-operatively is associated with poorer outcomes after ACL reconstruction. Recent clinical and biomechanical investigations can help guide clinicians in utilizing pivot shift in diagnosis and surgical planning. Further research is needed to clarify optimal management of ALC in addition to ACL injury.
KeywordsPivot shift Anterior cruciate ligament tear Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction Rotatory knee laxity Anterolateral complex Physical exam
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
Nicholas J. Vaudreuil, Benjamin B. Rothrauff, and Darren de Sa declare no conflict of interest.
Volker Musahl has done consulting work for Smith & Nephew.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
All reported studies/experiments with human or animal subjects performed by the authors have been previously published and complied with all applicable ethical standards (including the Helsinki declaration and its amendments, institutional/national research committee standards, and international/national/institutional guidelines).
Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance
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