Functional Mitral Valve Regurgitation
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Purpose of Review
Functional mitral regurgitation (FMR) occurs when mitral leaflets are prevented from adequate coaptation by underlying left ventricular (LV) dysfunction, mitral annular dilation, or both. This review aims to clarify the complex clinical issues in FMR, including diagnosis and therapy.
Even mild FMR has been shown to affect survival negatively. FMR is a dynamic condition and can vary within systole and with altered loading conditions. An integrative approach, including qualitative and quantitative echocardiographic data, is mandatory to determine severity of FMR. Treatment of FMR starts with guideline-directed medical therapy (GDMT) for LV dysfunction and heart failure, including cardiac resynchronization and/or revascularization, when indicated. Although mitral valve surgery may be considered in patients undergoing CABG in whom moderate or greater FMR is present, there is no convincing evidence that surgery improves outcomes. Recently, two randomized trials have compared percutaneous edge-to-edge repair of the mitral valve to GDMT. One showed striking benefit in patients with severe FMR and smaller LV volumes; the other no benefit in moderate MR with larger LV volumes.
FMR is a complex condition in which underlying LV dysfunction interrupts proper closure of the mitral leaflets. FMR can improve with GDMT for heart failure due to LV dysfunction. When it persists despite optimal titration of GDMT, transcatheter edge-to-edge mitral valve repair can improve mortality, heart failure hospitalization, and quality of life in selected patients. Trials of transcatheter mitral valve replacement are underway.
KeywordsMitral regurgitation Heart failure Left ventricular dysfunction MitraClip Valvular heart disease
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
Dr. Grayburn receives research grant support from Abbott Vascular, Boston Scientific, Edwards Lifesciences, and Medtronic, Echo Core Lab contracts from Edwards Lifesciences, W. L. Gore, Neochord, and Cardiovalve. He is a consultant for Abbott Vascular, Edwards Lifesciences, and Neochord.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
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