Lipids in Women: Management in Cardiovascular Disease Prevention and Special Subgroups
Purpose of Review
As the adverse impact of cardiovascular disease continues to afflict women around the world, the identification and treatment of risk factors to reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality continue to rise in priority. Dyslipidemia is a significant risk factor for coronary heart disease and should serve as a strong focus point in both primary and secondary prevention. However, women remain undertreated compared with men and receive less evidence-based therapies including cholesterol management. Some of the unique risk factors in women that contribute to cardiovascular disease have been incorporated in the current cholesterol management guidelines.
The medical community and international organizations have helped reduce the annual cardiovascular mortality rates for women since 1984. However, more work remains to be completed as heart disease in women remains inadequately researched, underdiagnosed, and poorly managed. This review discusses contemporary management of dyslipidemia in women, with additional focus on special risk subgroups and integration of the new 2018 American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology Guidelines on the Management of Blood Cholesterol.
Dyslipidemia management in women constitutes a substantial portion of the foundation of both primary and secondary prevention and is essential to reducing cardiovascular events in women. The current cholesterol guidelines focus on some of the risk factors for cardiovascular disease that are unique or more common in women. This is a review of how the current cholesterol management guidelines pertain to women specifically and address sex-specific cardiovascular risk factors in women.
KeywordsLipid Cholesterol Women Sex differences Primary prevention Secondary prevention
American College of Cardiology
American Heart Association
Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease
Coronary heart disease
High-density lipoprotein cholesterol
Human immunodeficiency virus
Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol
Physical activity guidelines
Systemic lupus erythematosus
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance
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