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Direct Determination of Ca, K, and Mg in Cocoa Beans by Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS): Evaluation of Three Univariate Calibration Strategies for Matrix Matching

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This study is dedicated to the direct analysis of Ca, K, and Mg by employing laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). Three univariate calibration strategies, namely (i) one-point and multi-line calibration (OP MLC), (ii) single-sample calibration (SSC), and (iii) two-point calibration transfer (TP CT), were evaluated and compared. Only OP MLC and TP CT presented precise and accurate results, where the trueness values ranged from 80 to 120% for most of the analyzed samples. Moreover, the standard errors for all determined elements ranged from 0.01 to less than 0.20% of the concentration in the samples. These three calibration strategies showed that they are efficient and effective for matrix matching to correct matrix effects in complex samples using only one sample as the standard.

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The authors are grateful to the Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq, Brazil, process number 158587/2017-0, 141311/2017-7, 305637/2015-0) and the Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP, process number 2016/01513-0). The authors are also grateful to Prof. Dr. Fábio Alan Carqueija Amorim from State University of Santa Cruz (Ilhéus, Brazil) for cocoa bean samples supply. 


This study was financed in part by the Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior, Brasil (CAPES)—Finance Code 001).

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Correspondence to Edenir Rodrigues Pereira-Filho.

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Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

Conflict of Interest

Raimundo Rafael Gamela declares that he has no conflict of interest. Vinicius Câmara Costa declares that he has no conflict of interest. Diego Vitor Babos declares that he has no conflict of interest. Alisson Silva Araújo declares that he has no conflict of interest. Edenir Rodrigues Pereira-Filho declares that he has no conflict of interest.

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Gamela, R.R., Costa, V.C., Babos, D.V. et al. Direct Determination of Ca, K, and Mg in Cocoa Beans by Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS): Evaluation of Three Univariate Calibration Strategies for Matrix Matching. Food Anal. Methods (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12161-020-01722-6

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  • Cocoa beans
  • Direct solid analysis
  • Calibration strategies
  • Matrix effects
  • Macronutrients