Awamori is a traditional distilled alcohol beverage unique to Okinawa, Japan. This study evaluated the potential of ultraviolet–visible (UV–VIS) spectroscopy in the assessment and differentiation of different Awamori samples. Thirty-one Awamori samples that could be classified differently based on attributes such as their distillation methods (atmospheric distillation and vacuum distillation), aging periods (0–18 years), batches (years 2017 and 2014), and distilleries of origin were investigated by UV–VIS spectroscopy and chromatographic analysis. Principal component analysis (PCA) of UV–VIS spectra showed that Awamori of atmospheric distillation and vacuum distillation could be clearly distinguished based on low and high PC1 scores, respectively; both young Awamori (aged less than 3 years) and Awamori from the 2017 batch exhibited low PC1 scores and high PC2 scores. Wavelength ranges with high loading values that correspond to the volatile compounds which have high correlations with PC scores, such as furfural, phenethyl alcohol, vanillin, and benzaldehyde, were observed in the UV–VIS spectral profiles. These volatile compounds with unique aroma characteristics can characterize Awamori attributes. Therefore, UV–VIS spectroscopy with the aid of chemometric analysis was demonstrated as a high potential technique for the rapid and low-cost evaluation and characterization of Awamori samples.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.
Boggia R, Casolino MC, Hysenaj V, Oliveri P, Zunin P (2013) A screening method based on UV-visible spectroscopy and multivariate analysis to assess addition of filler juices and water to pomegranate juices. Food Chem 140:735–741. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2012.11.020
Boscolo M, Andrade-Sobrinho LG, Lima-Neto BS, Franco DW, Ferreira MM (2002) Spectrophotometric determination of caramel content in spirits aged in oak casks. J AOAC Int 85:744–750
Bro R, Smilde AK (2014) Principal component analysis. Anal Methods 6:2812–2831. https://doi.org/10.1039/C3AY41907J
Carvalho MJ, Pereira V, Pereira AC, Pinto JL, Marques JC (2015) Evaluation of wine colour under accelerated and oak-cask ageing using CIELab and chemometric approaches. Food Bioprocess Technol 8:2309–2318. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11947-015-1585-x
Cortés V, Cubero S, Blasco J, Aleixos N, Talens P (2019) In-line application of visible and near-infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy to identify apple varieties. Food Bioprocess Technol 12:1021–1030. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11947-019-02268-0
Doyle N, Swain D, Roberts JJ, Cozzolino D (2017) The use of qualitative analysis in food research and technology: considerations and reflections from an applied point of view. Food Anal Methods 10:964–969. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12161-016-0654-8
Elmasry G, Iqbal A, Sun DW et al (2011) Quality classification of cooked, sliced turkey hams using NIR hyperspectral imaging system. J Food Eng 103:333–344. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2010.10.031
Fukuda H, Han J, Yamada O (2016) Characteristics of the volatile composition of commercially available Awamori. J Brew Soc Japan 111:261–270. https://doi.org/10.6013/jbrewsocjapan.111.261
Higa K, Tamamura T, Nishihira M et al (2008) Study on diversification of liquor in Awamori (II) - relationship between ingredient rice and fragrance and alcoholic beverages. Ind Technol Cent Res Rep Okinawa Prefect 10:31–41
Hong S, Lee M, Kim D et al (2013) Aspergillus luchuensis, an industrially important black Aspergillus in East Asia. PLoS One 8:1–9. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0063769
Isogai A, Utsunomiya H, Kanda R, Iwata H (2005) Changes in the aroma compounds of sake during aging. J Agric Food Chem 53:4118–4123. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf047933p
Kanauchi M (2012) Characteristics and role of feruloyl esterase from Aspergillus awamori in Japanese spirits,‘Awamori’production. Sci Heal Soc Asp food Ind:145–162
Koseki T, Iwano K (1998) A mechanism for formation and meaning of vanillin in Awamori. J Brew Soc Japan 93:510–517. https://doi.org/10.6013/jbrewsocjapan1988.93.510
Martins AR, Talhavini M, Vieira ML, Zacca JJ, Braga JW (2017) Discrimination of whisky brands and counterfeit identification by UV–Vis spectroscopy and multivariate data analysis. Food Chem 229:142–151. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2017.02.024
Molla N, Bakardzhiyski I, Manolova Y, Bambalov V, Cozzolino D, Antonov L (2017) The effect of path length on the measurement accuracies of wine chemical parameters by UV, visible, and near-infrared spectroscopy. Food Anal Methods 10:1156–1163. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12161-016-0735-8
Ochiai N, Sasamoto K, David F, Sandra P (2016) Solvent-assisted stir bar sorptive extraction by using swollen polydimethylsiloxane for enhanced recovery of polar solutes in aqueous samples: application to aroma compounds in beer and pesticides in wine. J Chromatogr A 1455:45–56. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chroma.2016.05.085
Pereira V, Cacho J, Marques JC (2014) Volatile profile of Madeira wines submitted to traditional accelerated ageing. Food Chem 162:122–134. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2014.04.039
Perestrelo R, Silva CL, Silva P, Câmara JS (2018) Impact of storage time and temperature on volatomic signature of Tinta Negra wines by LLME/GC-ITMS. Food Res Int 109:99–111. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2018.04.034
Pérez-Coello MS, Díaz-Maroto MC (2009) Volatile compounds and wine aging. In: Wine chemistry and biochemistry. Springer, New York, pp 295–311
Porker K, Zerner M, Cozzolino D (2017) Classification and authentication of barley (Hordeum vulgare) malt varieties: combining attenuated total reflectance mid-infrared spectroscopy with chemometrics. Food Anal Methods 10:675–682. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12161-016-0627-y
Seiden P, Bro R, Poll L, Munck L (1996) Exploring fluorescence spectra of apple juice and their connection to quality parameters by chemometrics. J Agric Food Chem 44:3202–3205. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf960179q
Taira J, Tsuchiya A, Furadate H (2012) Initial volatile aroma profiles of young and aged Awamori shochu determined by GC/MS/pulsed FPD. Food Sci Technol Res 18:177–181. https://doi.org/10.3136/fstr.18.177
Tamaki T, Takamiya Y, Takaesu C, Nishia T (1986a) Changes in ester compounds and higher alcohols of Awamori during aging. J Ferment Technol 64:17–24. https://doi.org/10.1016/0385-6380(86)90007-5
Tamaki T, Takamiya Y, Takaesu C, Nishia T (1986b) Changes in free fatty acids of Awamori during aging. J Ferment Technol 64:11–16. https://doi.org/10.1016/0385-6380(86)90007-5
Tamaki T, Takamiya Y, Takaesu C, Nishia T (1986c) Changes in sulfur compounds of Awamori during aging. J Ferment Technol 64:129–136. https://doi.org/10.1016/0385-6380(86)90007-5
Tamamura T, Higa K (2009) A study on the quality of aged Awamori (1st report). Ind Technol Cent Res Rep Okinawa Prefect 12:17–20
Tsuta M, Aiyama R, Tsukahara M et al (2017) Preliminary investigation on the relationship between fluorescence fingerprint and quality of Awamori. Japanese Soc Food Sci Technol 64:577–583. https://doi.org/10.3136/nskkk.64.577
Woodcock T, Fagan CC, O’Donnell CP, Downey G (2008) Application of near and mid-infrared spectroscopy to determine cheese quality and authenticity. Food Bioprocess Technol 1:117–129. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11947-007-0033-y
This study was funded by Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) Kakenhi Grant Number 26660206.
Conflict of Interest
Xinyue Li declares that she has no conflict of interest. Mizuki Tsuta declares that he has no conflict of interest. Fukuyo Tanaka declares that she has no conflict of interest. Masatoshi Tsukahara declares that he has no conflict of interest. Keiko Tsukahara declares that she has no conflict of interest.
This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
About this article
Cite this article
Li, X., Tsuta, M., Tanaka, F. et al. Assessment of Japanese Awamori Spirits Using UV–VIS Spectroscopy. Food Anal. Methods 13, 726–734 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12161-019-01692-4
- UV–VIS spectroscopy
- Chromatographic data
- Chemometric analysis
- Aging years
- Distillation methods
- Aroma volatiles