Advertisement

Tamarindus indica L. Seed: Optimization of Maceration Extraction Recovery of Tannins

  • Aleksandra Cvetanović
  • Sengul UysalEmail author
  • Branimir Pavlić
  • Kouadio Ibrahime Sinan
  • Eulogio J. Llorent-Martínez
  • Gokhan Zengin
Article
  • 25 Downloads

Abstract

The seeds of Tamarindus indica L., classified as bio-waste, are powerful sources of bioactive compounds, especially tannins. In order to use its full potential, extraction of such bioactive constituents should be done under the optimized conditions. In the frame of this paper, central-composite experimental design and RSM (response surface methodology) were applied in order to investigate the impact of the maceration parameters on target responses and to optimize extraction process. Extraction was performed under the different levels of extraction solvent (methanol), temperature, and solvent-to-sample ratio. Obtained extracts were evaluated in terms of total phenols, flavanols, and tannin yield and in vitro antioxidant activity (DPPH, FRAP, CUPRAC). Experimental results were fitted to a second-order polynomial model where regression analysis and analysis of variance were used to determine model fitness and optimal extraction conditions. Optimized extraction conditions determined by RSM were methanol concentration of 69.99%, extraction temperature of 23.38 °C, solvent-to-sample ratio of 1:20. Chemical characterization of the extract obtained under the optimized conditions was done by using HPLC-ESI-MS/MS technique. The study could provide a scientific baseline for designing novel functional products from T. indica seeds in further studies.

Keywords

Tamarind RSM HPLC-ESI-MS/MS Antioxidant Bioactive compounds 

Notes

Acknowledgments

Technical and human support provided by CICT of Universidad de Jaén (UJA, MINECO, Junta de Andalucía, FEDER) is gratefully acknowledged.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Cvetanović, A. declares that she has no conflict of interest. Uysal, S. declares that she has no conflict of interest. Pavlić, B. declares that he has no conflict of interest. Sinan, K.I. declares that he has no conflict of interest. Llorent-Martínez, E.J. declares that he has no conflict of interest. Zengin, G. declares that he has no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects.

Informed Consent

Informed consent is not applicable in this study.

References

  1. Arbenz A, Avérous L (2015) Chemical modification of tannins to elaborate aromatic biobased macromolecular architectures. Green Chem 17:2626–2646CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ayala-Zavala J et al (2011) Agro-industrial potential of exotic fruit byproducts as a source of food additives. Food Res Int 44:1866–1874CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Baş D, Boyacı İH (2007) Modeling and optimization II: comparison of estimation capabilities of response surface methodology with artificial neural networks in a biochemical reaction. J Food Eng 78:846–854.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2005.11.025 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bele AA, Jadhav VM, Kadam V (2010) Potential of tannnins: a review. Asian J Plant Sci 9:209–214CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Ben-Ali S, Akermi A, Mabrouk M, Ouederni A (2018) Optimization of extraction process and chemical characterization of pomegranate peel extract. Chem Pap 8:2087–2100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bhadoriya SS, Ganeshpurkar A, Narwaria J, Rai G, Jain AP (2011) Tamarindus indica: extent of explored potential. Pharmacogn Rev 5:73–81PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Brain A, John M (2014) Phenolic content and antioxidant activity of selected Ugandan traditional medicinal foods. Afr J Food Sci 8:427–434CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Chowdhury A, Sarkar S, Chowdhury A, Bardhan S, Mandal P, Chowdhury M (2016) Tea waste management: a case study from West Bengal, India. Indian J Sci Technol 9:1–6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Dey S, Swarup D, Saxena A, Dan A (2011) In vivo efficacy of tamarind (Tamarindus indica) fruit extract on experimental fluoride exposure in rats. Res Vet Sci 91:422–425PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. Doughari J (2006) Antimicrobial activity of Tamarindus indica Linn. Trop J Pharm Res 5:597–603Google Scholar
  11. Ferreira SL, Silva Junior MM, Felix CSA, da Silva DLF, Santos AS, Santos Neto JH, de Souza CT, Cruz Junior RA, Souza AS (2019) Multivariate optimization techniques in food analysis–A review. Food Chem 273:3–8PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. Janissen B, Huynh T (2018) Chemical composition and value-adding applications of coffee industry by-products: a review. Resour Conserv Recycl 128:110–117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Kajdžanoska M, Gjamovski V, Stefova M (2010) HPLC-DAD-ESI-MSn identification of phenolic compounds in cultivated strawberries from Macedonia. Maced J Chem Chem En 29:181–194Google Scholar
  14. Krakowska A, Rafińska K, Walczak J, Buszewski B (2018) Enzyme-assisted optimized supercritical fluid extraction to improve Medicago sativa polyphenolics isolation. Ind Crop Prod 124:931–940CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Llorent-Martínez EJ, Zengin G, Lobine D, Molina-García L, Mollica A, Mahomoodally MF (2018) Phytochemical characterization, in vitro and in silico approaches for three Hypericum species. New J Chem 42:5204–5214CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Lochab B, Shukla S, Varma IK (2014) Naturally occurring phenolic sources: monomers and polymers. RSC Adv 4:21712–21752CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Mahomoodally MF, Mootoosamy A, Wambugu S (2016) Traditional therapies used to manage diabetes and related complications in Mauritius: a comparative ethnoreligious study. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2016:1–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Maiti R, Jana D, Das U, Ghosh D (2004) Antidiabetic effect of aqueous extract of seed of Tamarindus indica in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. J Ethnopharmacol 92:85–91PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Martinello F, Soares SM, Franco JJ, Santos AC, Sugohara A, Garcia SB, Curti C, Uyemura SA (2006) Hypolipemic and antioxidant activities from Tamarindus indica L. pulp fruit extract in hypercholesterolemic hamsters. Food Chem Toxicol 44:810–818PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Mollica A et al (2017) An assessment of the nutraceutical potential of Juglans regia L. leaf powder in diabetic rats. Food ChemToxicol 107:554–564CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Mollica A et al (2018) Nutraceutical potential of Corylus avellana daily supplements for obesity and related dysmetabolism. J Funct Foods 47:562–574CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Mootoosamy A, Mahomoodally MF (2014) Ethnomedicinal application of native remedies used against diabetes and related complications in Mauritius. J Ethnopharmacol 151:413–444PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  23. Nabet N, Gilbert-López B, Madani K, Herrero M, Ibáñez E, Mendiola JA (2019) Optimization of microwave-assisted extraction recovery of bioactive compounds from Origanum glandulosum and Thymus fontanesii. Ind Crop Prod 129:395–404CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Olagunju OF, Ezekiel OO, Ogunshe AO, Oyeyinka SA, Ijabadeniyi OA (2018) Effects of fermentation on proximate composition, mineral profile and antinutrients of tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.) seed in the production of daddawa-type condiment. LWT-Food Sci Technol 90:455–459CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Oluseyi EO, Temitayo OM (2015) Chemical and functional properties of fermented, roasted and germinated tamarind (Tamarindus indica) seed flours. Nutr Food Sci 45:97–111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Pandey A, Belwal T, Sekar KC, Bhatt ID, Rawal RS (2018) Optimization of ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE) of phenolics and antioxidant compounds from rhizomes of Rheum moorcroftianum using response surface methodology (RSM). Ind Crop Prod 119:218–225CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Pasandide B, Khodaiyan F, Mousavi ZE, Hosseini SS (2017) Optimization of aqueous pectin extraction from Citrus medica peel. Carbohydr Polym 178:27–33PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  28. Pavlić B, Naffati A, Hojan T, Vladić J, Zeković Z, Vidović S (2017) Microwave-assisted extraction of wild apple fruit dust—production of polyphenol-rich extracts from filter tea factory by-products. J Food Process Eng 40:e12508.  https://doi.org/10.1111/jfpe.12508 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Pizzi A (1980) Tannin-based adhesives. J Macromol Sci A 18:247–315CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Ramos A, Visozo A, Piloto J, Garcıa A, Rodrıguez C, Rivero R (2003) Screening of antimutagenicity via antioxidant activity in Cuban medicinal plants. J Ethnopharmacol 87:241–246PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  31. Razali N, Mat-Junit S, Abdul-Muthalib AF, Subramaniam S, Abdul-Aziz A (2012) Effects of various solvents on the extraction of antioxidant phenolics from the leaves, seeds, veins and skins of Tamarindus indica L. Food Chem 131:441–448CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Ricci A, Parpinello GP, Palma AS, Teslić N, Brilli C, Pizzi A, Versari A (2017) Analytical profiling of food-grade extracts from grape (Vitis vinifera sp.) seeds and skins, green tea (Camellia sinensis) leaves and Limousin oak (Quercus robur) heartwood using MALDI-TOF-MS, ICP-MS and spectrophotometric methods. J Food Compn Anal 59:95–104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Rimbau V, Risco E, Canigueral S, Iglesias J (1996) Antiinflammatory activity of some extracts from plants used in the traditional medicine of North-African countries. Phytother Res 10:421–423CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Rockenbach II, Jungfer E, Ritter C, Santiago-Schübel B, Thiele B, Fett R, Galensa R (2012) Characterization of flavan-3-ols in seeds of grape pomace by CE, HPLC-DAD-MSn and LC-ESI-FTICR-MS. Food Res Int 48:848–855CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Rudra SG, Nishad J, Jakhar N, Kaur C (2015) Food industry waste: mine of nutraceuticals. Int J Sci Environ Technol 4:205–229Google Scholar
  36. Sarnoski PJ, Johnson JV, Reed KA, Tanko JM, O’Keefe SF (2012) Separation and characterisation of proanthocyanidins in Virginia type peanut skins by LC–MSn. Food Chem 131:927–939CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Shirmohammadli Y, Efhamisisi D, Pizzi A (2018) Tannins as a sustainable raw material for green chemistry: a review. Ind Crop Prod 126:316–332CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Sudjaroen Y, Haubner R, Würtele G, Hull WE, Erben G, Spiegelhalder B, Changbumrung S, Bartsch H, Owen RW (2005) Isolation and structure elucidation of phenolic antioxidants from Tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.) seeds and pericarp. Food Chem Toxicol 43:1673–1682PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Uysal A, Ozer OY, Zengin G, Stefanucci A, Mollica A, Picot-Allain CMN, Mahomoodally MF (2019a) Multifunctional approaches to provide potential pharmacophores for the pharmacy shelf: Heracleum sphondylium L. subsp. ternatum (Velen.) Brummitt. Comput Biol Chem 78:64–73.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compbiolchem.2018.11.018 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Uysal S, Cvetanović A, Zengin G, Zeković Z, Mahomoodally MF, Bera O (2019b) Optimization of maceration conditions for improving the extraction of phenolic compounds and antioxidant effects of Momordica charantia L. leaves through response surface methodology (rsm) and artificial neural networks (anns). Anal Lett 52:2150–2163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Van der Stege C, Prehsler S, Hartl A, Vogl CR (2011) Tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.) in the traditional West African diet: not just a famine food. Fruits 66:171–185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Van Hoyweghen L, De Bosscher K, Haegeman G, Deforce D, Heyerick A (2014) In vitro inhibition of the transcription factor NF-κB and cyclooxygenase by Bamboo extracts. Phytother Res 28:224–230PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  43. Zeković Z, Bera O, Đurović S, Pavlić B (2017) Supercritical fluid extraction of coriander seeds: kinetics modelling and ANN optimization. J Supercrit Fluids 125:88–95CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Zengin G, Sarikurkcu C, Uyar P, Aktumsek A, Uysal S, Kocak MS, Ceylan R (2015) Crepis foetida L. subsp. rhoeadifolia (Bieb.) Celak. as a source of multifunctional agents: cytotoxic and phytochemical evaluation. J Funct Foods 17:698–708.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jff.2015.06.041 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Zengin G, Stefanucci A, Rodrigues MJ, Mollica A, Custodio L, Aumeeruddy MZ, Mahomoodally MF (2019) Scrophularia lucida L. as a valuable source of bioactive compounds for pharmaceutical applications: in vitro antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, enzyme inhibitory properties, in silico studies, and HPLC profiles. J Pharm Biomed Anal 162:225–233PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Biotechnology and Pharmaceutical Engineering, Faculty of TechnologyUniversity of Novi SadNovi SadRepublic of Serbia
  2. 2.Erciyes University, Halil Bayraktar Health Services Vocational CollegeKayseriTurkey
  3. 3.Ziya Eren Drug Application and Research CenterErciyes UniversityKayseriTurkey
  4. 4.Department of Biology, Science FacultySelcuk UniversityKonyaTurkey
  5. 5.Faculty of Experimental Sciences, Department of Physical and Analytical ChemistryUniversity of JaénJaenSpain

Personalised recommendations