A Simple Strategy Based on Deep Eutectic Solvent for Determination of Aflatoxins in Rice Samples

  • Tingting He
  • Tong Zhou
  • Yiqun WanEmail author
  • Ting TanEmail author


The liquid-phase extraction combined with newly green extraction solvent named deep eutectic solvent has been widely used. In this work, a simple and fast analytical method based on deep eutectic solvent (DES) was developed for simultaneous determination of aflatoxin G1, B1, G2, and B2 in rice samples. With simple liquid-phase extraction, aflatoxins were quickly enriched into a tetramethylammonium chloride-malonic acid (n/n, 1:2) DES, accompanied with the enhancement of fluorescence intensity of aflatoxins without any derivatization process. Various parameters were optimized to achieve the best extraction efficiency. Under the optimal conditions, satisfactory linearity ranges (0.2–20 μg/kg for aflatoxin G1, 0.1–20 μg/kg for aflatoxin B1, 0.06–6 μg/kg for aflatoxin G2, and 0.03–6 μg/kg for aflatoxin B2), low LODs (0.06 μg/kg for aflatoxin G1, 0.03 μg/kg for aflatoxin B1, 0.02 μg/kg for aflatoxin G2, and 0.01 μg/kg for aflatoxin B2), good precision (RSD < 5.52%), and recoveries (78.93–113.64%) were obtained. These results met the determination requirements of aflatoxins, which demonstrated that DES could be used as an efficient extractant for aflatoxins analysis in rice samples.


Deep eutectic solvent Aflatoxins Fluorescence detection High-performance liquid chromatography Rice 



The financial support for this study from the Natural Science Foundation of P.R. China (No. 31660483), the Research Program of State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology in Nanchang University (No. SKLF-ZZB-201718, SKLF-ZZA-201612) and the Science and Technology Program of Jiangxi Province (20141BBG70093) are gratefully acknowledged.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Tingting He declares that she has no conflict of interest. Tong Zhou declares that she has no conflict of interest. Ting Tan declares that she has no conflict of interest. Yiqun Wan declares that he has no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects.

Informed Consent

Not applicable.


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Food Science and TechnologyNanchang UniversityNanchangChina
  2. 2.Jiangxi Province Key Laboratory of Preventive Medicine, School of Public HealthNanchang UniversityNanchangPeople’s Republic of China
  3. 3.Center of Analysis and TestingNanchang UniversityNanchangChina

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