Study on a Biomimetic Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay for Rapid Detection of Flumequine in Animal Foods

  • Weihua Liu
  • Jing Wang
  • Wenlong Yu
  • Xianghong WangEmail author


Flumequine (FLU) is widely used as an antibiotic in the treatment and control of animal diseases, which may result in the presence of residues harmful to humans in food products of animal origin. A novel and fast biomimetic enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (BELISA) was developed for the determination of FLU based on a molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) as a selective affinity agent. With an optimized molar ratio of FLU to methacrylic acid (MAA) of 1:2 determined by molecular dynamic simulations, the MIP was directly synthesized on the surface of a 96-well plate (as solid support) with FLU as the template molecule, MAA as the functional monomer, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) as the cross-linker, and azodiisobutyronitrile (AIBN) as the initiator. Under the optimized conditions, the BELISA method was established with a sensitivity (IC50) of 0.141 μg/mL and a detection limit (IC15) of 1.09 × 10−3 μg/mL. The developed method was applied to determine FLU concentrations in spiked beef and shrimp samples, with satisfactory recovery values ranging from 80.7 to 92.2% with relative standard deviations (n = 3) between 3.3% and 7.0%. This method can be used for the rapid determination of FLU in animal foods and has promising applications in food safety monitoring.


Flumequine Molecularly imprinted polymer Selective affinity agent Biomimetic enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay 


Funding Information

The study is financially supported by the National Key R & D Program of China, the Ministry of Science and Technology of the People’s Republic of China (No. 2016YFD0401101).

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Weihua Liu declares that she has no conflict of interest. Jing Wang declares that she has no conflict of interest. Wenlong Yu declares that he has no conflict of interest. Xianghong Wang declares that she has no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by the any of the authors.

Informed Consent

Not applicable.


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.College of Food Science and TechnologyHebei Agricultural UniversityBaodingPeople’s Republic of China

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