A Simple HS-SPME/GC-MS Method for Determination of Acrolein from Sourdough to Bread
Acrolein is a toxic compound present in food. It can be formed by bacterial species isolated from sourdough or applied as sourdough starter cultures, such as Lactobacillus reuteri. To the best of our knowledge, the content of acrolein in sourdough bread has not yet been determined, neither has a method for its quantification in such a sample been published. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a simple method for determining acrolein in sourdough, batter, and bread by headspace solid-phase microextraction combined with gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. The selected conditions for acrolein extraction were temperature 40 °C and time 20 min. A significant effect of the matrix on acrolein signal was observed. Linearity and precision were achieved within the examined range for all evaluated matrices. The obtained limits of detection and quantification were 1.21 μg/kg of sample and 4.05 μg/kg of sample, respectively. The acrolein solution with the addition of 0.2% hydroquinone was stable for 48 h. The developed method was applied for the quantification of acrolein in gluten-free sourdough (with L. reuteri DSM 20016 or L. brevis DSM 20054 as a starter culture), and batter and bread with or without added sourdough. Acrolein was not detected in the samples prepared without L. reuteri DSM 20016. Acrolein content in bread prepared with L. reuteri DSM 20016 sourdough was 161 μg/kg, which is below the WHO provisional tolerable concentration, but its consumption would significantly contribute to the overall acrolein exposure.
KeywordsAcrolein Lactobacillus reuteri Sourdough bread SPME GC-MS Validation
The authors wish to thank The Dow Chemical Company for supplying Methocel™ K4M and Wellence™ Gluten Free 47129, Palco Ltd. for supplying emulsifier MONO 40, and Lidija Drobac for her technical assistance.
This study was funded by Croatian Science Foundation (projects VH/VT 09/01/279 and GbP-FFood IP-06-2016 3789).
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
Saša Drakula declares that there is no conflict of interest. Dubravka Novotni declares that there is no conflict of interest. Nikolina Čukelj Mustač declares that there is no conflict of interest. Bojana Voučko declares that there is no conflict of interest. Marina Krpan declares that there is no conflict of interest. Mirjana Hruškar declares that there is no conflict of interest. Duška Ćurić declares that there is no conflict of interest.
This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.
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