Food Analytical Methods

, Volume 12, Issue 11, pp 2459–2468 | Cite as

First Study of Sourdough Beer Aging Via the Chemical Fingerprint of Volatile Markers

  • Valery Ripari
  • Matteo Tomassetti
  • Teresa CecchiEmail author
  • Enrico Berardi


Despite years of research, sensory worsening during beer aging remains a challenge to brewing chemists. Taking into account the novelty of sourdough beer and the interest of consumers in artisanal and specialty beer, the study of its aging is mandatory. The shelf life of Lambic beer is known to be much longer than that of common beer, and it may last over a span of several years. No study is available for the shelf life of sourdough beer whose recipe is inspired to Lambic beer production. For this reason, it would be useful to establish a dataset of relevant substances for the objective evaluation of sourdough beer aging, with and without refermentation in the bottle, in a 2-year endpoint study. In our work, the headspace solid-phase microextraction was used to sample the volatile profile of fresh and aged samples. Principal component analysis enabled (i) the selection of the most eligible aging volatile indicators and (ii) the clustering of the samples according to their aging and fermentation process. Sourdough non-refermented beers have a shorter shelf life than others assessed in the study. Sourdough refermented beers still have to be analytically and sensorially monitored in the years to come to detect their very long shelf life.


Sourdough acidic beer Volatile profile HS-SPME-GC-MS Principal Component Analysis (PCA) Shelf life Staling 



We thank Prof. Margherita Bonanni for helpful support. Enrico Berardi contributed to this research but he passed away before the submission of the manuscript.

Compliance with Ethical Standards


No commercial party having a direct financial interest in the results of the research supporting this article has or will confer a benefit on the authors or any organization with which the authors are associated.

Conflict of Interest

Valery Ripari declares that she has no conflict of interest.·Matteo Tomassetti declares that he has no conflict of interest. Teresa Cecchi declares that she has no conflict of interest. Enrico Berardi declared that he has no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

Not applicable

Informed Consent

Not applicable.


  1. Alasalvar C, Taylor KDA, Shaidi F (2005) Comparison of volatiles of cultured and wild sea bream (Sparus aurata) during storage in ice by dynamic headspace analysis/gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. J Agric Food Chem 53(7):2616–2622 J. Agric. Food Chem.20055372616-2622CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. American Society of Enologists. C de la, Schlich P, Davies HD, Noble AC (1998) American journal of enology and viticulture. American Society of EnologistsGoogle Scholar
  3. Belitz H-D, Grosch W, Schieberle P (2013) Food Chemistry. Springer Science & Business Media, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  4. Buttery BG, Turnbaugh JG, Ling LC (1988) Cooked rice aroma and 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline. J Agric Food Chem 36:1006–1009. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Cecchi T, Alfei B (2013) Volatile profiles of Italian monovarietal extra virgin olive oils via HS-SPME–GC–MS: newly identified compounds, flavors molecular markers, and terpenic profile. Food Chem 141:2025–2035. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Cecchi T, Passamonti P, Cecchi P (2010) Study of the quality of extra virgin olive oil stored in PET bottles with or without an oxygen scavenger. Food Chem 120:730–735. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cecchi T, Sacchini L, Felici A (2018) First investigation on the shelf life of Mediterranean mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) on the basis of their volatiles profiles. Food Anal Methods 11:1451–1456. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Cherfaoui M, Cecchi T, Keciri S, Boudriche L (2018) Volatile compounds of Algerian extra-virgin olive oils: effects of cultivar and ripening stage. Int J Food Prop 21:36–49. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Cometto-Muñiz JE, Cain WS, Abraham MH, Gil-Lostes J (2008) Concentration-detection functions for the odor of homologous n- acetate esters. Physiol Behav 95:658–667. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. Da Costa NC, Eri S (2004) Identification of aroma chemicals. In: Chemistry and technology of flavors and fragrances. Blackwell Publishing Ltd, Oxford, pp 12–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Dunkel A, Steinhaus M, Kotthoff M, Nowak B, Krautwurst D, Schieberle P, Hofmann T (2014) Nature’s chemical signatures in human olfaction: a foodborne perspective for future biotechnology. Angew Chem Int Ed 53:7124–7143. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Gardiner WP (2007) Statistical analysis methods for chemists. Royal Society of Chemistry, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  13. Gijs L, Chevance F, Jerkovic V, Collin S0 (2002) How low pH can intensify beta-damascenone and dimethyl trisulfide production through beer aging. J Agric Food Chem 50:5612–5616CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Hammes WP, Brandt MJ, Francis KL, Rosenheim J, Seitter MFH, Vogelmann SA (2005) Microbial ecology of cereal fermentations. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Herrmann M, Klotzbücher B, Wurzbacher M, et al (2010) A new validation of relevant substances for the evaluation of beer aging depending on the employed boiling systemGoogle Scholar
  16. Hieronymus S (2005) Brew like a monk: Trappist, abbey, and strong Belgian ales and how to brew them. Brewers Publications, BoulderGoogle Scholar
  17. Kawai T (1996) Fish flavor. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 36(3):257–298. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Lehnhardt F, Gastl M, Becker T (2018) Forced into aging: analytical prediction of the flavor-stability of lager beer. A review. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 8398:1–12. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Medoro C, Cianciabella M, Camilli F, Magli M, Gatti E, Predieri S (2016) Sensory profile of Italian craft beers, beer taster expert versus sensory methods: a comparative study. Food Nutr Sci 07:454–465. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Miedl M, Rogers P, Day GL, Clarke FM, Stewart GG (2011) The peroxide challenge test: a novel method for holistic near-real time measurement of beer flavour stability. J Inst Brew 117:166–175. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Ocvirk M, Mlinarič NK, Košir IJ (2018) Comparison of sensory and chemical evaluation of lager beer aroma by gas chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. J Sci Food Agric 98:3627–3635. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Pires EJ, Teixeira JA, Brányik T, Vicente AA (2014) Yeast: the soul of beer’s aroma—a review of flavour-active esters and higher alcohols produced by the brewing yeast. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 98:1937–1949. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Ripari V, Cecchi T, Berardi E (2016) Microbiological characterisation and volatiles profile of model, ex-novo, and traditional Italian white wheat sourdoughs. Food Chem 205:297–307. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Ripari V, Tomassetti M, Cecchi T, Enrico B (2018) Recipe, volatiles profile, sensory analysis, physico-chemical and microbial characterization of acidic beers from both sourdough yeasts and lactic acid bacteria. Eur Food Res Technol. 244:2027–2040. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Rodriguez-Bencomo JJ, Muñoz-González C, Martín-Álvarez PJ, Lázaro E, Mancebo R, Castañé X, Pozo-Bayón MA (2012) Optimization of a HS-SPME-GC-MS Procedure for beer volatile profiling using response surface methodology: application to follow aroma stability of beers under different storage conditions. Food Anal Methods 5:1386–1397. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Rossi S, Sileoni V, Perretti G, Marconi O (2014) Characterization of the volatile profiles of beer using headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. J Sci Food Agric 94:919–928. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Sparrow J, (2005) Wild Brews: Beer Beyond the Influence of Brewer's Yeast. Brewer Pubblication.Google Scholar
  28. Stewart GG, Priest FG (2011) Beer shelf life and stability. Woodhead Publishing Limited, CambridgeCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Vanderhaegen B, Neven H, Coghe S, Verstrepen KJ, Derdelinckx G, Verachtert H (2003) Bioflavoring and beer refermentation. Appl Microbiol Biotech 62:140–150. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Vanderhaegen B, Neven H, Verachtert H, Derdelinckx G (2005) The chemistry of beer aging-a critical review. CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Dipartimento di Scienze Agrarie, Alimentari e AmbientaliUniversità Politecnica delle MarcheAnconaItaly
  2. 2.ITT MONTANIFermoItaly

Personalised recommendations