First Study of Sourdough Beer Aging Via the Chemical Fingerprint of Volatile Markers
- 51 Downloads
Despite years of research, sensory worsening during beer aging remains a challenge to brewing chemists. Taking into account the novelty of sourdough beer and the interest of consumers in artisanal and specialty beer, the study of its aging is mandatory. The shelf life of Lambic beer is known to be much longer than that of common beer, and it may last over a span of several years. No study is available for the shelf life of sourdough beer whose recipe is inspired to Lambic beer production. For this reason, it would be useful to establish a dataset of relevant substances for the objective evaluation of sourdough beer aging, with and without refermentation in the bottle, in a 2-year endpoint study. In our work, the headspace solid-phase microextraction was used to sample the volatile profile of fresh and aged samples. Principal component analysis enabled (i) the selection of the most eligible aging volatile indicators and (ii) the clustering of the samples according to their aging and fermentation process. Sourdough non-refermented beers have a shorter shelf life than others assessed in the study. Sourdough refermented beers still have to be analytically and sensorially monitored in the years to come to detect their very long shelf life.
KeywordsSourdough acidic beer Volatile profile HS-SPME-GC-MS Principal Component Analysis (PCA) Shelf life Staling
We thank Prof. Margherita Bonanni for helpful support. Enrico Berardi contributed to this research but he passed away before the submission of the manuscript.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
No commercial party having a direct financial interest in the results of the research supporting this article has or will confer a benefit on the authors or any organization with which the authors are associated.
Conflict of Interest
Valery Ripari declares that she has no conflict of interest.·Matteo Tomassetti declares that he has no conflict of interest. Teresa Cecchi declares that she has no conflict of interest. Enrico Berardi declared that he has no conflict of interest.
- American Society of Enologists. C de la, Schlich P, Davies HD, Noble AC (1998) American journal of enology and viticulture. American Society of EnologistsGoogle Scholar
- Belitz H-D, Grosch W, Schieberle P (2013) Food Chemistry. Springer Science & Business Media, BerlinGoogle Scholar
- Gardiner WP (2007) Statistical analysis methods for chemists. Royal Society of Chemistry, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
- Herrmann M, Klotzbücher B, Wurzbacher M, et al (2010) A new validation of relevant substances for the evaluation of beer aging depending on the employed boiling systemGoogle Scholar
- Hieronymus S (2005) Brew like a monk: Trappist, abbey, and strong Belgian ales and how to brew them. Brewers Publications, BoulderGoogle Scholar
- Miedl M, Rogers P, Day GL, Clarke FM, Stewart GG (2011) The peroxide challenge test: a novel method for holistic near-real time measurement of beer flavour stability. J Inst Brew 117:166–175. https://doi.org/10.1002/j.2050-0416.2011.tb00456.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Ripari V, Tomassetti M, Cecchi T, Enrico B (2018) Recipe, volatiles profile, sensory analysis, physico-chemical and microbial characterization of acidic beers from both sourdough yeasts and lactic acid bacteria. Eur Food Res Technol. 244:2027–2040. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00217-018-3114-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Rodriguez-Bencomo JJ, Muñoz-González C, Martín-Álvarez PJ, Lázaro E, Mancebo R, Castañé X, Pozo-Bayón MA (2012) Optimization of a HS-SPME-GC-MS Procedure for beer volatile profiling using response surface methodology: application to follow aroma stability of beers under different storage conditions. Food Anal Methods 5:1386–1397. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12161-012-9390-x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Sparrow J, (2005) Wild Brews: Beer Beyond the Influence of Brewer's Yeast. Brewer Pubblication.Google Scholar