A UPLC-fluorescence method has been developed to evaluate the concentration of ten biogenic amines, as dansylated derivatives, in food. The sample preparation consisted of a solid-liquid extraction with perchloric acid, followed by the dansylation of the extracted amines. The analysis was performed using an Acquity UPLC BEH C18 column on a UPLC Acquity system (Waters) with a fluorescence detector. Two reference materials consisting of tuna muscle incurred with histamine were used to evaluate the performances of the following method: selectivity, specificity, linearity, limits of detection and quantification, precision, and accuracy. The averages of the measured values were evaluated at 98.7% and 96.8% of the expected values, for the two materials. The developed method was applied to quantify biogenic amines in grilled meat from Beninese markets. The biogenic amines index was calculated for each sample. In this study, ten samples can be considered as fresh with values lower than 5 mg/kg, while one sample is considered as acceptable (16.9 mg/kg) and one sample is considered as spoiled (82.8 mg/kg). Tryptamine and 2-phenylethylamine samples were not detected but methylamine and putrescine were detected at concentrations lower than their limit of quantification. Serotonin, spermidine, and spermine were detected in all samples. No link between the biogenic amine concentrations and the cooking conditions was observed. Because the biogenic amines are not heat sensitive, the measured concentrations of biogenic amines in this study could be explained by bad hygienic conditions during meat storage before cooking. It means that the Beninese population may be exposed to sometimes high biogenic amines content, leading to allergies or other more serious health problems.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
This study was performed with the financial support of ARES-CCD (Academy of Research and Higher Education—Committee for Development Cooperation, Belgium) (Project Qualisani).
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
Caroline Douny declares that she has no conflict of interest. Soumaya Benmedjadi declares that she has no conflict of interest. François Brose declares that he has no conflict of interest. O.H. Iko Afé declares that he has no conflict of interest. Ahmed Igout declares that he has no conflict of interest. D.J. Hounhouigan declares that he has no conflict of interest. Victor Bienvenu Anihouvi declares that he has no conflict of interest. Marie-Louise Scippo declares that she has no conflict of interest.
Human Participants and Animal Studies
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects.
All applicable international, national, and/or institutional guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed.
Alvarez MA, Moreno-Arribas MV (2014) The problem of biogenic amines in fermented foods and the use of potential biogenic amine-degrading microorganisms as a solution. Trends Food Sci Tech 39:146–155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Aquiles Lazaro C, Conte-Júnior CA, Canto AC, Guerra Monteiro ML, Costa-Lima B, Gomes da Cruz A, Teixeira Marsico E, Maia Franco R (2015) Biogenic amines as bacterial quality indicators in different poultry meat species. LWT Food Sci Technol 60:15–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ayssiwede SB, Mankor A, Missohou A, Abiola FA (2009) Commercialisation et consommation de la viande de porc au Bénin. Revue Africaine de Santé et de Productions animales 7:105–112Google Scholar
Baliño-Zuazo L, Barranco A (2016) A novel liquid chromatography–mass spectrometric method for the simultaneous determination of trimethylamine, dimethylamine and methylamine in fishery products. Food Chem 196:1207–1214CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bilgin B, Genccelep H (2015) Determination of biogenic amines in fish products. Food Sci Biotechnol 24:1907–1913CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cheng W, Sun DW, Cheng JH (2016) Pork biogenic amines index (BAI) determination based on chemometric analysis of hyperspectral imaging data. LWT Food Sci Technol 73:13–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Commission of the European Communities (2002) Commission decision 2002/657/EC implementing council directive 96/23/EC, concerning the performance of analytical methods and the interpretation of results. EC Commission, BrusselsGoogle Scholar
Commission of the European Communities (2005) Commission regulation (EC) No 2073/2005 of 15 November 2005 on microbiological criteria for foodstuffsGoogle Scholar
Dadáková E, Krˇízˇek M, Pelikánová T (2009) Determination of biogenic amines in foods using ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC). Food Chem 116:365–370CrossRefGoogle Scholar
De Mey E, De Klerck K, De Maere H, Dewulf L, Derdelinckx G, Peeters MC, Fraeye I, Vander Heyden Y, Paelinck H (2014) The occurrence of N-nitrosamines, residual nitrite and biogenic amines in commercial dry fermented sausages and evaluation of their occasional relation. Meat Sci 96:821–828CrossRefGoogle Scholar
del Rio B, Redruello B, Linares DM, Ladero V, Fernandez M, Cruz Martin M, Ruas-Madiedo P, Alvarez MA (2017) The dietary biogenic amines tyramine and histamine show synergistic toxicity towards intestinal cells in culture. Food Chem 218:249–255CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Duflos G (2009) Histamine risk in fishery products. Bull Acad Vet Fr 162:241–246Google Scholar
Gonzaga VE, Lescano AG, AA H’a, Salmn-Mulanovich G, Blazes DL (2009) Histamine levels in fish from markets in Lima, Peru. J Food Prot 72:1112–1115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kim MK, Mah JH, Hwang HJ (2009) Biogenic amine formation and bacterial contribution in fish, squid and shellfish. Food Chem 116:87–95CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lapa-Guimarães J, Pickova J (2004) New solvent systems for thin-layer chromatographic determination of nine biogenic amines in fish and squid. J Chromatogr A 1045:223–232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Latorre-Moratalla ML, Bosch-Fusté J, Lavizzari T, Bover-Cid S, Veciana-Nogués MT, Vidal-Carou MC (2009) Validation of an ultra high pressure liquid chromatographic method for the determination of biologically active amines in food. J Chromatogr A 1216:7715–7720CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Linares DM, del Rio B, Redruello B, Ladero V, Cruz Martin M, Fernandez M, Ruas-Madiedo P, Alvarez MA (2016) Comparative analysis of thein vitro cytotoxicity of the dietary biogenic amines tyramine and histamine. Food Chem 197:658–663CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mohammed GI, Bashammakh AS, Alsibaai AA, Alwael H, El-Shahawi MS (2016) A critical overview on the chemistry, clean-up and recent advances in analysis of biogenic amines in foodstuffs. TrAC - Trends Anal Chem 78:84–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Naila A, Flint S, Fletcher G, Bremer P, Meerdink G (2010) Control of biogenic amines in food-existing and emerging approaches. J Food Sci 75:R139–RR50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ngapo TM, Vachon L (2017) Biogenic amine concentrations and evolution in “chilled” Canadian pork for the Japanese market. Food Chem 233:500–506CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ntzimani AG, Paleologos EK, Savvaidis IN, Kontominas MG (2008) Formation of biogenic amines and relation to microbial flora and sensory changes in smoked Turkey breast fillets stored under various packaging conditions at 4°C. Food Microbiol 25:509–517CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Papageorgiou M, Lambropoulou D, Morrison C, Kłodzinska E, Namiesnik J, Płotka-Wasylka J (2018) Literature update of analytical methods for biogenic amines determination in food and beverages. Trends Anal Chem 98:128–142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Park JS, Lee CH, Kwon EY, Lee HJ, Kim JY, Kim SH (2010) Monitoring the contents of biogenic amines in fish and fish products consumed in Korea. Food Control 21:1219–1226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Santiyanont P, Chantarasakha K, Tepkasikul P, Srimarut Y, Mhuantong W, Tangphatsornruang S, Zo YG, Chokesajjawatee N (2019) Dynamics of biogenic amines and bacterial communities in a Thai fermented pork product Nham. Food Res Int 119:110–118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Shalaby AR (1996) Significance of biogenic amines to food safety and human health. Food Res Int 29:675–690CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Silla Santos MH (1996) Biogenic amines: their importance in foods. Int J Food Microbiol 29:213–231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Simon Sarkadi L (2019) Amino acids and biogenic amines as food quality factors. Pure Appl Chem 91:289–300CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tao Z, Sato M, Zhang H, Yamaguchi T, Nakano T (2011) A survey of histamine content in seafood sold in markets of nine countries. Food Control 22:430–432CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tapingkae W, Tanasupawat S, Parkin KL, Benjakul S, Visessanguan W (2010) Degradation of histamine by extremely halophilic archaea isolated from high salt-fermented fishery products. Enzyme Microbial Technol 46:92–99CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tittarelli F, Perpetuini G, Di Gianvito P, Tofalo R (2019) Biogenic amines producing and degrading bacteria: a snapshot from raw ewes’ cheese. LWT-Food Sci Technol 101:1–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Food and Drug Administration, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (CDER), Center for Veterinary Medicine (CVM) (2018) Bioanalytical method validation. In: Guidance for industryGoogle Scholar
Yongsawatdigul J, Choi YJ, Udomporn S (2004) Biogenic amines formation in fish sauce prepared from fresh and temperature-abused Indian anchovy (Stolephorus indicus). J Food Sci 69:FCT312–FCT319CrossRefGoogle Scholar