Volatile Compound Profiling in Czech and Spanish Lager Beers in Relation to Used Production Technology
Beers produced using different brewing technologies from Spain (intensified technologies) and Czech Republic (classical technologies) were analysed. A comparison of volatile compound profiles from particular lagers and non-alcoholic beers was carried out. Headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) coupled with gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) was used to compare 28 industrial lager beer samples of 3 different types: pale, dark and non-alcoholic. A total of 44 volatile compounds were identified, and 19 of these were quantified. Principal component analysis showed four principal factors, each related to a particular group of compounds. Two factors that explained more than 63.72% of the variability were related to higher alcohols and acetates. Non-alcoholic beers had very low levels of volatile compounds, with the exception of a non-alcoholic Czech beer made using a special yeast that was unable to metabolize maltose and maltotriose, and had a volatile profile closer to that of lagers. Czech lagers brewed using classical technologies differed in their volatile profiles from lagers brewed using modern technologies in Spain, in particular, in the ratio between the contents of higher alcohols and esters.
KeywordsBeer Flavour Gas chromatography Mass spectrometry Volatile compounds HS-SPME
The study was financially supported by the Technology Agency of the Czech Republic (project TE02000177) for its financial support.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
Jakub Nešpor declares that he has no conflict of interest. Cristina Andrés-Iglesias declares that she has no conflict of interest. Marcel Karabín declares that he has no conflict of interest. Olimpio Montero declares that he has no conflict of interest. Carlos A. Blanco declares that he has no conflict of interest. Pavel Dostálek declares that he has no conflict of interest.
Publication has been approved by all individual participants.
This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.
- Andrés-Iglesias C, Montero O, Sancho D, Blanco CA (2014) New trends in beer flavour compound analysis. J Sci Food Agric 95:1571–1576Google Scholar
- Casey GP, Magnus CA, Ingledew WM (1984) High-gravity brewing - effects of nutrition on yeast composition, fermentative ability, and alcohol production. Appl Environ Microbiol 48:639–646Google Scholar
- Dekoninck TML, Verbelen PJ, Delvaux F, Van Mulders SE, Delvaux FR (2012) The Importance of wort composition for yeast metabolism during accelerated brewery fermentations. J Am Soc Brew Chem 70:195–204Google Scholar
- Goncalves JL, Figueira JA, Rodrigues FP, Ornelas LP, Branco RN, Silva CL, Camara JS (2014a) A powerful methodological approach combining headspace solid phase microextraction, mass spectrometry and multivariate analysis for profiling the volatile metabolomic pattern of beer starting raw materials. Food Chem 160:266–280CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Goncalves JL, Figueira JA, Rodrigues FP, Ornelas LP, Branco RN, Silva CL, Camara JS (2014b) A powerful methodological approach combining headspace solid phase microextraction, mass spectrometry and multivariate analysis for profiling the volatile metabolomic pattern of beer starting raw materials. Food Chem 160:266–280CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Kaltner D, Steinhaus M, Mitter W, Biendl M, Schieberle P (2003) (R)-Linalool as key flavour for hop aroma in beer and its behaviour during beer staling. Monatsschr Brauwiss 56:192–196Google Scholar
- Krogerus K, Gibson BR (2013) 125th Anniversary Review: Diacetyl and its control during brewery fermentation. J Inst Brew 119:86–97Google Scholar
- Lin J, Jia B, Shan SS, Xu SA (2014) Fed-batch fermentation with glucose syrup as an adjunct for high-ethanol beer brewing. J Inst Brew 120:426–432Google Scholar
- McCaig R, McKee J, Pfisterer EA, Hysert DW, Munoz E, Ingledew WM (1992) Very high gravity brewing—laboratory and pilot plant trials. J Am Soc Brew Chem 50:18–25Google Scholar
- Parker DK (2012) Beer: production, sensory characteristics and sensory analysis. In: Piggott J (ed) Alcoholic beverages. Woodhead Publishing Series in Food Science, Technology and Nutrition, Cambridge, pp 133–158Google Scholar
- Rodriguez-Bencomo J, Muñoz-González C, Martín-Álvarez P, Lázaro E, Mancebo R, Castañé X, Pozo-Bayón M (2012) Optimization of a HS-SPME-GC-MS procedure for beer volatile profiling using response surface methodology: application to follow aroma stability of beers under different storage conditions. Food Anal Methods 5:1386–1397CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Saison D, De Schutter DP, Delvaux F, Delvaux FR (2008) Optimisation of a complete method for the analysis of volatiles involved in the flavour stability of beer by solid-phase microextraction in combination with gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr A 1190:342–349CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Stewart GG, Priest FG 1942- (2006) Handbook of brewing. CRC/Taylor & Francis, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
- Štěrba K, Dostálek P, Karabín M (2011) Moderní postupy využívané při přípravě vzorků pro stanovení alkoholů, esterů a kyselin v pivu. Chem List 105:603–610Google Scholar
- Younis OS, Stewart GG (1999) Effect of malt wort, very-high-gravity malt wort, and very-high-gravity adjunct wort on volatile production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Am Soc Brew Chem 57:39–45Google Scholar