Simultaneous Determination of Aflatoxins in Bread by In-Syringe Dispersive Micro-Solid Phase Extraction Using Magnetic Three-Dimensional Graphene Followed by HPLC-FLD

  • Hassan SereshtiEmail author
  • Farnaz Khodayari
  • Nina Nouri


In this study, the new approach of dispersive micro-solid phase extraction using a magnetic sheet was developed. A circle magnetic sheet (diameter, 25 mm; thickness, 0.4 mm) was perforated and used as a support for fixing and re-collecting three-dimensional magnetic graphene nanoparticles as an adsorbent. The method was coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence detector (HPLC-FLD) and utilized for extraction of aflatoxins (B1, B2, G1, and G2). All steps of the extraction procedure including sample loading, sorbent dispersion, and re-collecting, and elution were performed using a syringe. The significant parameters such as adsorbent amount, desorption conditions, flow rates, ionic strength, and pH which influence extraction efficiency was investigated. The linear dynamic range was 0.2–1000 μg kg−1, with a coefficient of determinations > 0.9914. The limits of detection and quantification were 0.06–0.1 and 0.20–0.33 μg kg−1, respectively. The developed method was applied to the analysis of aflatoxins in real white and moldy bread samples, and the related extraction recoveries of the four aflatoxins were obtained in the range of 59–69% (RSD, 4.4–5.6%).


Aflatoxins HPLC In-syringe magnetic dispersive solid phase microextraction Magnetic three-dimensional graphene Perforated magnetic sheet 


Funding Information

The authors received financial support from the Iran National Science Foundation (INSF) through Research Grants.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Hassan Sereshti declares that he has no conflict of interest. Farnaz Khodayari declares that he has no conflict of interest. Nina Nouri declares that he has no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects.

Informed Consent

A statement regarding “informed consent” is not applicable.


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Chemistry, College of ScienceUniversity of TehranTehranIran

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