This work introduces a β-cyclodextrin/multi-walled carbon nanotube (β-CD/MWCNT)–modified microelectrode array (MEA) for rapid determination of imidacloprid in vegetables. The MEA, fabricated on a silicon wafer, contains 20 parallel-connected working electrodes, a counter electrode and a reference electrode. The MWCNT is drop-casted onto the working electrode area, and β-CD is decorated onto the MWCNT layer with electropolymerization. Electrochemical behaviors of the as-fabricated sensor are investigated with cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). Obtained results validate that the proposed sensor has a large electroactive area, great electrical conductivity, and high sensitivity. During preparation and application of the sensor, 0.5 mg mL−1 MWCNT suspension and phosphate-buffered solution (0.1 mol L−1, pH = 7) are found to optimize experimental conditions. Under optimized conditions, a wide linear range as 5 to 100 μmol L−1 is obtained for target imidacloprid, and the limit of detection (LOD, S/N = 3) is well defined as 0.629 μmol L−1. The sensor is used for sensing imidacloprid in cabbage, cucumber, and tomato. The results from this method are in accordance with high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) data.
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The authors acknowledge the National Key R&D Program of China (2017YFD0400102; 2017YFC1600805), the National Postdoctoral Funding of China (2018T110460; 2017M611739), and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (31772073, 60901079).
Table 1 Results of determination of imidacloprid in three vegetable samples
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
Wen Zhang declares no conflict of interest. Chao Liu declares no conflict of interest. Xiaobo Zou declares no conflict of interest. Han Zhang declares no conflict of interest. Yiwei Xu declares no conflict of interest.
This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.
Informed consent is not applicable for the nature of this study.
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