Food Analytical Methods

, Volume 12, Issue 10, pp 2216–2225 | Cite as

Optimization of Headspace Solid-phase Microextraction for the Analysis of Volatile Compounds of High-fat Dairy Powders

  • Pelin Salum
  • Zafer ErbayEmail author


Optimization of main extraction parameters of the headspace solid-phase microextraction (SPME) method for two high-fat dairy powders with distinctly different volatile profiles was performed with response surface methodology. While cream powder (60% fat content) has a weak odor, enzyme-modified cheese powder (EMC) (35% fat content) is known with its intense flavor generated by high degrees of proteolysis and lipolysis. Extraction time, extraction temperature, and agitation speed were selected as optimization factors. Eight different volatile compounds isolated from cream powder and ten volatiles detected in EMC powder in varied molecular weight, boiling temperature, and organic classes were selected as optimization responses to express the overall extraction efficiency and volatile profile of powders. Optimization was performed to obtain the highest extraction efficiency for each response. It is suggested to use the SPME conditions at 56.2 °C for 70.8 min with 250 rpm for the isolation of volatiles in cream powder whereas the extraction temperature, time, and agitation speed were optimized for EMC powders as 53.4 °C, 63.2 min, and 250, respectively.


SPME Optimization High-fat Dairy powder Cream Enzyme-modified cheese Response surface methodology 


Funding Information

A part of this work (cream powder part) was supported by Adana Science and Technology University, Scientific Research Projects Coordination (BAP) [project no. 17103026] whereas the other part (enzyme modified cheese powder part) was supported by The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK) [project no. 115O229].

Compliance with Ethical Standards

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Informed Consent

Not applicable.


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Food Engineering, Graduate School of Natural and Applied SciencesAdana Science and Technology UniversityAdanaTurkey
  2. 2.Department of Food Engineering, Faculty of EngineeringAdana Science and Technology UniversityAdanaTurkey

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