Food Analytical Methods

, Volume 12, Issue 10, pp 2282–2292 | Cite as

Detection of Peanut Oil Adulteration Mixed with Rapeseed Oil Using Gas Chromatography and Gas Chromatography–Ion Mobility Spectrometry

  • Lili Tian
  • Yuanyuan ZengEmail author
  • Xiuqian Zheng
  • Yahuang Chiu
  • Tristan LiuEmail author


In this study, the feasibility of gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography–ion mobility spectrometry (GC–IMS) systems for detecting peanut oil (PO) adulterated with rapeseed oil (RO) in different ratios was evaluated. In the GC analysis, the oils were categorized on the basis of fatty acid compositions. In the GC–IMS analysis, the oils were distinguished on the basis of volatile fractions. To demonstrate the high quality of the GC–IMS results, principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis (CA) were conducted. The results showed that fatty acid profiles in PO exhibited higher amounts of palmitic acid (10.70 ± 0.18%), linoleic acid (32.87 ± 0.52%), and arachidic acid (2.30 ± 0.05%). RO had higher levels of linolenic acid (7.49 ± 0.36%) and erucic acid (8.02 ± 0.39%), which were not detected in PO. The linear regression analysis showed that the change in C18:2, C18:3, C20:1, and C22:1 content was highly correlated with the adulteration proportion of RO. However, only significant differences were visible in C18:3 and C20:1 when the adulteration proportion was a minimum of 5%. Satisfactory results of adulteration determination were obtained using the GC–IMS combined with the PCA and CA. Each oil type had unique characteristic compounds, and signals of some volatile compounds changed with the increase in the adulteration proportion especially at run times ranging from 100 to 300 s. For example, the intensity of peak signals of 89–92 increased with the addition of RO while peak intensity of 104 to 107 weakened. These individual signals revealed the volatile compounds responsible for the differences between PO and RO and could help to screen PO adulterated with RO. The established PCA scatter plots and CA could correctly differentiate authentic PO from adulterated samples with at least 1% of RO. Consequently, the GC–IMS shows higher efficiency and feasibility compared with the GC and may serve as a basis for the detection of adulteration of various substances.


Peanut oil Rapeseed oil Adulteration GC GC–IMS PCA CA 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Lili Tian declares no conflict of interest. Yuanyuan Zeng declares no conflict of interest. Xiuqian Zheng declares no conflict of interest. Yahuang Chiu declares no conflict of interest. Tristan Liu declares no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

This article does not contain any studies with animals or human participants performed by any of the authors.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Research and Development Center, Standard Investment (China)ShanghaiChina

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