Advertisement

Food Analytical Methods

, Volume 12, Issue 11, pp 2614–2622 | Cite as

Non-targeted Detection of Multiple Frauds in Orange Juice Using Double Water-Soluble Fluorescence Quantum Dots and Chemometrics

  • Lu Xu
  • Liuna Wei
  • Qiong Shi
  • Chenbo Cai
  • Hai-Yan FuEmail author
  • Yuan-Bin She
Article
  • 93 Downloads

Abstract

The feasibility of a highly sensitive “turn-off” fluorescent probe of double quantum dots (QDs) combined with chemometrics was investigated for untargeted screening of extraneous adulterants in pure orange juice (OJ), including sucrose syrup and artificial fruit powder. Pure and adulterated OJ samples were characterized by their different quenching patterns of the two separate and strong fluorescent peaks generated by the double QDs followed by chemometrics analysis. Class models of pure OJ samples (n = 117) obtained from pressing newly harvested oranges were developed using one-class partial least squares (OCPLS) based on different signal preprocessing methods, including smoothing, taking second-order derivatives (D2) and standard normal variate (SNV) transformation. As a result, D2-OCPLS model could detect at 5.0% (w/w) of sucrose syrup and 2.0% (w/w) of artificial fruit powder in pure OJ with a sensitivity (the rate of true positives) of 97.8% and specificity (rate of true negatives) of 77.0%. In conclusion, the proposed fluorescence probe with double QDs has been demonstrated to have potential for applications in rapid and sensitive screening of adulterants in OJ, which also implies promising applications to untargeted analysis of other water-soluble food samples.

Graphical Abstract

Keywords

Orange juice Double quantum dots Beverage fraud One-class partial least squares (OCPLS) Untargeted detection 

Notes

Funding Information

This work received financial support from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 21665022, 21576297, 21776321, 21706233, and 21476270), Guizhou Provincial Science and Technology Department (Nos. QKHJC[2017]1186 and QKHZC[2019]2816), the Talented Researcher Program from Guizhou Provincial Department of Education (No. QJHKYZ[2018]073), Provincial Key Disciplines of Chemical Engineering and Technology in Guizhou Province (No. ZDXK[2017]8), and the Talented Youth Cultivation Program from “the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities”, South-Central University for Nationalities (No. CZP19005).

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Lu Xu declares that he has no conflict of interest. Liuna Wei declares that she has no conflict of interest. Qiong Shi declares that she has no conflict of interest. Chen-Bo Cai declares that he has no conflict of interest. Hai-Yan Fu declares that she has no conflict of interest. Yuan-Bin She declares that he has no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

Informed Consent

Not applicable.

References

  1. Abad-García B, Garmón-Lobato S, Sánchez-Ilárduya M, Berrueta L, Gallo B, Vicente F, Alonso-Salces R (2014) Polyphenolic contents in citrus fruit juices: authenticity assessment. Eur Food Res Technol 238:803–818CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ammari F, Redjdal L, Rutledge DN (2015) Detection of orange juice frauds using front-face fluorescence spectroscopy and independent components analysis. Food Chem 168:211–217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Angel Pardo M (2015) Evaluation of a dual-probe real time PCR system for detection of mandarin in commercial orange juice. Food Chem 172:377–384CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Araújo A, Marinho W, Gomes ADA (2018) A fast and inexpensive chemometric-assisted method to identify adulteration in acai (euterpe oleracea) using digital images. Food Anal Methods 11:1920–1926CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Barnes RJ, Dhanoa MS, Lister SJ (1989) Standard normal variate transformation and detrending of near infrared diffuse reflectance spectra. Appl Spectrosc 43:772–777CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bonilla JC, Bozkurt F, Ansari S, Sozer N, Kokini JL (2016) Applications of quantum dots in food science and biology. Trends Food Sci Technol 53:75–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bontempo L, Caruso R, Fiorillo M, Gambino GL, Perini M, Simoni M, Traulo P, Wehrens R, Gagliano G, Camin F (2014) Stable isotope ratios of H, C, N and O in Italian citrus juices. J Mass Spectrom 49:785–791CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. Cuny M, Vigneau E, Gall GL, Colquhoun I, Lees M, Rutledge DN (2008) Fruit juice authentication by 1H NMR spectroscopy in combination with different chemometrics tools. Anal Bioanal Chem 390:419–427CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. Dağdeviren S, Altunay N, Sayman Y, Gürkan R (2018) A new method of UA_CPE coupled with spectrophotometry for the faster and cost-effective detection of proline in fruit juice, honey, and wine. Food Chem 255:31–40CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. Daszykowski M, Serneels S, Kaczmarek K, Van Espen P, Croux C, Walczak B (2007) TOMCAT: A MATLAB toolbox for multivariate calibration techniques. Chemom Intell Lab Syst 85:269–277Google Scholar
  11. Dufour E, Riaublanc A (1997) Potentiality of spectroscopic methods for the characterisation of dairy products.I. Front-face fluorescence study of raw, heated and homogenised milks. Lait 77:657–670CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Faria MA, Magalhães A, Nunes ME, Oliveira MBPP (2013) High resolution melting of trnL amplicons in fruit juices authentication. Food Control 33:136–141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Fidelis M, Santos JS, Kincheski Coelho AL, Rodionova OY, Pomerantsev A, Granato D (2017) Authentication of juices from antioxidant and chemical perspectives: a feasibility quality control study using chemometrics. Food Control 73:796–805CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Förstel H (2007) The natural fingerprint of stable isotopes—use of irms to test food authenticity. Anal Bioanal Chem 388:541–544CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. Garcia-Wass F, Hammond D, Mottram DS, Gutteridge CS (2000) Detection of fruit juice authenticity using pyrolysis mass spectroscopy. Food Chem 69:215–220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Gómez-Ariza JL, Villegas-Portero MJ, Bernal-Daza V (2005) Characterization and analysis of amino acids in orange juice by HPLC–MS/MS for authenticity assessment. Anal Chim Acta 540:221–230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Gupta VK, Das A, Dey A (1991) Universal optimality of block designs with unequal block sizes. Statist Probab Lett 11:177–180Google Scholar
  18. Hansen L, Ferrão MF (2018) Identification of possible milk adulteration using physicochemical data and multivariate analysis. Food Anal Methods 11:1994–2003CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Herbert S, Riaublanc A, Bouchet B, Gallant DJ, Dufour E (1999) Fluorescence spectroscopy investigations of acid or rennet-induced milk coagulation of milk. J Dairy Sci 82:2056–2062CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Hu O, Xu L, Fu H, Yang T, Fan Y, Lan W, Tang H, Wu Y, Ma L, Wu D, Wang Y, Xiao Z, She Y (2018) “Turn-off” fluorescent sensor based on double quantum dots coupled with chemometrics for highly sensitive and specific recognition of 53 famous green teas. Anal Chim Acta 1008:103–110CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  21. Hubert M, Rousseeuw PJ, Verboven S (2002) A Fast method for robust principal components with applications to chemometrics. Chemom Intell Lab Syst 60:101–111Google Scholar
  22. Jandrić Z, Cannavan A (2017) An investigative study on differentiation of citrus fruit/fruit juices by UPLC-QTOF-MS and chemometrics. Food Control 72:173–180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Jandrić Z, Roberts D, Rathor MN, Abrahim A, Islam M, Cannavan A (2014) Assessment of fruit juice authenticity using UPLC-QTOF-MS: a metabolomics approach. Food Chem 148:7–17CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  24. Jandrić Z, Islam M, Singh DK, Cannavan A (2017) Authentication of Indian citrus fruit/fruit juices by untargeted and targeted metabolomics. Food Control 72:181–188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Kamiloglu S (2018) Authenticity and traceability in beverages. Food Chem 227:12–24Google Scholar
  26. Karoui R, Blecker C (2011) Fluorescence spectroscopy measurement for quality assessment of food systems. A review. Food Bioproc Technol 4:364–386CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Karoui R, Mazerolles G, Dufou É (2003) Spectroscopic techniques coupled with chemometric tools for structure and texture determinations in dairy products: a review. Int Dairy J 13:607–620CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Lerma-García MJ, D’Amato A, Simó-Alfonso EF, Righetti PG, Fasoli E (2016) Orange proteomic fingerprinting: from fruit to commercial juices. Food Chem 196:739–749CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  29. Lin H, Ying Y (2009) Theory and application of near infrared rpectroscopy in assessment of fruit quality: a review. Sens & Instrumen Food Qual 3:130–141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Majcher MA, Kaczmarek A, Klensporf-Pawlik D, Pikul J, Jeleń HH (2015) SPME-MS-Based electronic nose as a tool for determination of authenticity of pdo cheese, oscypek. Food Anal Methods 8:2211–2217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Mbogning Feudjio W, Ghalila H, Nsangou M, Majdi Y, Kongbonga YM, Jaïdane N (2017) Fluorescence spectroscopy combined with chemometrics for the investigation of the adulteration of essential oils. Food Anal Methods 10:2539–2548CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Meléndez-Martínez AJ, Vicario IM, Heredia FJ (2005) Correlation between visual and instrumental colour measurements of orange juice dilutions: effect of the background. Food Qual Prefer 16:471–478CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Moore JC, Spink J, Lipp M (2012) Development and application of a database of food ingredient fraud and economically motivated adulteration from 1980 to 2010. J Food Sci 77:118–126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Nikolaou C, Karabagias IK, Gatzias I, Kontakos S, Badeka A, Kontominas MG (2017) Differentiation of fresh Greek orange juice of the merlin cultivar according to geographical origin based on the combination of organic acid and sugar content as well as physicochemical parameters using chemometrics. Food Anal Methods 10:2217–2228CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Ogrinc N, Kosir IJ, Spangenberg JE, Kidrič J (2003) The application of NMR and MS methods for detection of adulteration of wine, fruit juices, and olive oil. A review. Anal Bioanal Chem 376:424–430CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. O’Kell AL, Garrett TJ, Wasserfall C, Atkinson MA (2017) Untargeted metabolomic analysis in naturally occurring canine diabetes mellitus identifies similarities to human Type 1 Diabetes. Sci Rep 7: 9467. Google Scholar
  37. Poulli KI, Mousdis GA, Georgiou CA (2005) Classification of edible and lampante virgin olive oil based on synchronous fluorescence and total luminescence spectroscopy. Anal Chim Acta 542:151–156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Robards K, Antolovich M (1995) Methods for assessing the authenticity of orange juice. A review. Analyst 120:1–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Savitzky A, Golay MJE (1964) Smoothing and differentiation of data by simplified least squares procedures. Anal Chem 36:1627–1639CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Shi X, Wei W, Fu Z, Gao W, Zhang C, Zhao Q, Deng Q, Lu F, Lu X (2019) Review on carbon dots in food safety applications. Talanta 194:809–821CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  41. Sikorska E, Górecki T, Khmelinskii IV, Sikorski M, Kozioł J (2005) Classification of edible oils using synchronous scanning fluorescence spectroscopy. Food Chem 89:217–225CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Snee RD (1977) Validation of regression models: methods and examples. Technometrics 19:415–428CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Snyder AB, Sweeney CF, Rodriguez-Saona LE, Giusti MM (2014) Rapid authentication of concord juice concentration in a grape juice blend using Fourier-Transform infrared spectroscopy and chemometric analysis. Food Chem 147:295–301CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  44. Sørensen M, Raaschou-Nielsen O, Brasch-Andersen C, Tjønneland A, Overvad K, Autrup H (2007) Interactions between GSTM1, GSTT1 and GSTP1 polymorphisms and smoking and intake of fruit and vegetables in relation to lung cancer. Lung Cancer 55:137–144CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  45. Spinelli FR, Dutra SV, Carnieli G, Leonardelli S, Drehmer AP, Vanderlinde R (2016) Detection of addition of apple juice in purple grape juice. Food Control 69:1–4CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Strasburg GM, Ludescher RD (1995) Theory and applications of fluorescence spectroscopy in food research. Trends Food Sci Technol 6:69–75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Szymczycha-Madeja A, Welna M, Jedryczko D, Pohl P (2014) Developments and strategies in the spectrochemical elemental analysis of fruit juices. Trends Anal Chem 55:68–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Tezcan F, Uzaşçı S, Uyar G, Öztekin N, Erim FB (2013) Determination of amino acids in pomegranate juices and fingerprint for adulteration with apple juices. Food Chem 141:1187–1191CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  49. Vaclavik L, Schreiber A, Lacina O, Cajka T, Hajslova J (2012) Liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry-based metabolomics for authenticity assessment of fruit juices. Metabolomics 8:793–803CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Vigneau E, Thomas F (2012) Model calibration and feature selection for orange juice authentication by 1H NMR spectroscopy. Chemom Intell Lab Syst 117:22–30Google Scholar
  51. Woolfe M, Gurung T, Walker MJ (2013) Can analytical chemists do molecular biology? A survey of the up-skilling of the UK official food control system in DNA food authenticity techniques. Food Control 33:385–392CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Xu Q, Liang Y (2001) Monte Carlo cross validation. Chemom Intell Lab Syst 56:1–11Google Scholar
  53. Xu L, Yan S, Cai C, Yu X (2013) One-class partial least squares (OCPLS) classifier. Chemom Intell Lab Syst 126:1–5Google Scholar
  54. Xu L, Goodarzi M, Shi W, Cai C, Jiang J (2014) A MATLAB toolbox for class modeling using one-class partial least squares (OCPLS) classifiers. Chemom Intell Lab Syst 139:58–63Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.College of Material and Chemical EngineeringTongren UniversityTongrenPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.The Modernization Engineering Technology Research Center of Ethnic Minority Medicine of Hubei Province, School of Pharmaceutical SciencesSouth-Central University for NationalitiesWuhanPeople’s Republic of China
  3. 3.Department of Chemistry and Life ScienceChuxiong Normal UniversityChuxiongPeople’s Republic of China
  4. 4.State Key Laboratory of Green Chemistry-Synthesis Technology, College of Chemical EngineeringZhejiang University of TechnologyHangzhouPeople’s Republic of China

Personalised recommendations