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Food Analytical Methods

, Volume 12, Issue 10, pp 2194–2204 | Cite as

Rapid Extraction of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Apple: Ultrasound-Assisted Solvent Extraction Followed by Microextraction by Packed Sorbent

  • Alice Paris
  • Jean-Luc Gaillard
  • Jérôme LedauphinEmail author
Article
  • 54 Downloads

Abstract

Common procedures for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) extraction involve the use of large amount of solvents and a long extraction time. To address these difficulties, ultrasound-assisted solvent extraction followed by microextraction by packed sorbent (UAE-MEPS) was investigated as a novel extraction procedure for the recovery of PAHs from apple, a model of solid vegetal food matrix. The most suitable sorbent and the eluting solvent for PAHs recovery through MEPS were determined. The performances of the whole procedure were tested through the determination of linearity, accuracy, and sensitivity after GC-MS analyses. Linearity assays, within 0 to 10 μg/kg in apple (9 points), provided determination coefficients around 0.993 (median value) for all studied PAHs. Repeatability tests (n = 3) and intermediate precision (n = 9) showed relative standard deviation between 1 and 12%. Limits of detection were determined between 0.04 and 0.13 μg/kg wet weight (w.w.) and limits of quantification were between 0.12 and 0.43 μg/kg w.w. These performances allowed the trace level determination of PAHs in apples collected in different crop environments. The proposed UAE-MEPS procedure is rapid and few solvent consuming compared to other conventional techniques for PAHs extraction.

Keywords

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons Apple Ultrasound-assisted solvent extraction Microextraction by packed sorbent GC-MS 

Abbreviations

UAE

Ultrasound-assisted solvent extraction

MEPS

Microextraction by packed sorbent

PAHs

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

MW

Molecular weight

w.w.

Wet weight

SLE

Solid–liquid extraction

SPE

Solid-phase extraction

PS-DVB

Polystyrene–divinylbenzene copolymer

MIPs

Molecular imprinted polymers

PLE

Pressurized liquid extraction

HS-SPME

Headspace solid-phase microextraction

GC

Gas chromatography

PEP

Polar-enhanced polymer

MS

Mass spectrometry

SIM

Single ion monitoring

RT

Room temperature

LOD

Limit of detection

LOQ

Limit of quantification

PGC

Porous graphitic carbon

RSD

Relative standard deviation

ACY

Acenaphthylene

ACP

Acenaphthene

FLR

Fluorene

PHE

Phenanthrene

ANT

Anthracene

FA

Fluoranthene

PYR

Pyrene

BaA

Benz[a]anthracene

CHR

Chrysene

BbF

Benzo[b]fluoranthene

BaP

Benzo[a]pyrene

IP

Indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene

DBahA

Dibenz[ah]anthracene

BghiP

Benzo[ghi]perylene

d.w.

Dry weight

Notes

Funding

Alice Paris was supported by a PhD scholarship from the Basse-Normandie Region.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Alice Paris declares that she has no conflict of interest. Jean-Luc Gaillard declares that he has no conflict of interest. Jérôme Ledauphin declares that he has no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors

Informed Consent

A statement regarding informed consent is not applicable.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Unité de Recherche Aliments Bioprocédés Toxicologie Environnements (UR ABTE, EA 4651)Normandie Univ, UNICAEN, ABTECaenFrance

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