Proteins play different and essential roles in the human organism. Containing essential amino acids, proteins, and minerals, beef is considered the main source of protein in human nutrition. It is generally accepted that the protein profile is directly correlated to tenderness and beef pigmentation and is also related to its organoleptic properties. In the present work, it is demonstrated the changes in protein profile, differences of metal concentrations, and how metals bonded to proteins can vary during the ripening phase, evaluated over a 14-day beef aging period. The proposed extraction procedure indicated 85% efficiency, preserving the metal-protein structure. Seventeen protein bands were detected using SDS-PAGE, and a 43-kDa band was found to be the most intense. The arrangement of SDS-PAGE and SEC-ICP-MS results indicated the possible links between minerals and organic functional molecules, such as Ca to troponin, Cu and Zn to albumin, and Fe to myoglobin and hemoglobin.
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The authors would like to thank National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq) for the fellowships provided to R. Carapelli, A.F. Oliveira, and A.R.A. Nogueira (300880/2017-0, 409852/2018-0, 308178/2018-1).
The study was funded by São Paulo Research Foundation (FAPESP 2006/59083-9, 2018/26145-9).
Conflict of Interest
Rodolfo Carapelli declares that he has no conflict of interest. Aline Fernandes de Oliveira declares that she has no conflict of interest. Rodrigo Giglioti declares that he has no conflict of interest. Rymer Ramiz Tullio declares that he has no conflict of interest. Renata Tieko Nassu declares that she has no conflict of interest. Marcia Cristina Sena Oliveira declares that she has no conflict of interest. Ana Rita Araujo Nogueira declares that he has no conflict of interest.
Not applicable (humans are not involved).
The Ethical Committee of Embrapa Pecuária Sudeste approved all experimental and animal protocols (CEUA/CCPSE, Protocol No. 04/2011 and PRT 02/2015). Animal and experimental procedures were carried out following the guidelines provided by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee Guidelines of Embrapa Pecuária Sudeste ethics committee (São Carlos, São Paulo, Brazil).
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Carapelli, R., de Oliveira, A.F., Giglioti, R. et al. Calcium, Fe, Cu, Zn, and Mg Fractionation in In Natura and Aged Beef Samples by Bioanalytical Methods. Food Anal. Methods 13, 186–194 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12161-019-01560-1
- Beef aging
- Protein extraction
- Sample preparation