Detection of Irradiated In-Shell Peanuts (Arachis hypogaea) by Screening PPSL and Confirmatory TL Luminescence Methods

  • J. Roman-LopezEmail author
  • I. B. LozanoEmail author
  • J. A. I. Diaz-Góngora
  • J. I. Guzman-Castañeda
  • E. Cruz-Zaragoza


In this work, the luminescence methods of pulsed photo-stimulated luminescence (PPSL, as screening) and thermoluminescence (TL, as confirmatory) were used for identification of non-irradiated and low-dose irradiated (1–5 kGy) in-shell peanuts from light emissions of silicate minerals incorporated in the shell. The minerals were irradiated with 90Sr beta particles, 60Co and 137Cs gamma rays. Screening PPSL response detected peanut shell as irradiated from 80 Gy for 60Co and 30 Gy for 137Cs gamma rays. Irradiated (60Co and 137Cs) peanut shell samples were positively detected with PPSL after 4.5 and 14 months. A complex TL glow curve composed of at least two maxima was exhibited by the minerals. Using the TL1/TL2 ratio, the in-shell peanuts were identified as irradiated from 50, 120, and 100 Gy of 90Sr, 60Co, and 137Cs radiation, respectively. Moreover, the TL glow curve shape was also used to identify the peanut shell minerals as irradiated at lower dose of radiation. After 34 days of storage, the peanut shell minerals showed enough TL emissions for their identification as irradiated.


In-shell peanuts Confirmatory TL Screening PPSL 90Sr beta radiation Gamma rays 



This work has been founded by CONACYT-253777 and SIP-IPN-20181800 projects. The authors are grateful to Francisco García (ICN-UNAM) for their assistance in irradiation samples.


This study was funded by CONACYT (grant number 253777) and SIP-IPN (grant number 20181800).

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Author J. Roman-Lopez declares that he has no conflict of interest. Author I.B. Lozano declares that she has no conflict of interest. Author J.A.I. Diaz-Góngora declares that he has no conflict of interest. Author J.I. Guzman-Castañeda declares that he has no conflict of interest. Author E. Cruz-Zaragoza declares that he has no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

Informed Consent

Not applicable.


  1. Ahn JJ, Kim GR, Akram K, Kim JS, Kwon JH (2012) Changes in thermoluminescence properties of minerals separated from irradiated potatoes and garlic during long-term storage under different light conditions. Eur Food Res Technol 235:75–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ahn JJ, Akram K, Kim B, Baek JY, Kwak JY, Park EJ, Kim HY, Kim CT, Jeong IY, Lee JW, Han SB, Kwon JH (2013) Applicability of thermoluminescence techniques to identify irradiated seafoods using different methods of mineral separation: an interlaboratory blind trial. Food Sci Biotechnol 22:931–935CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Akram K, Ahn JJ, Kwon JH (2012) Analytical methods for the identification of irradiated foods. In: Belotserkovsky E, Ostaltsov Z (eds) Ionizing radiation: applications, sources and biological effects. Nova Science Publishers Inc, New York, pp 1–36Google Scholar
  4. Al-Bachir M (2015) Quality characteristics of oil extracted from gamma irradiated peanut (Arachishypogea L.). Radiat Phys Chem 106:56–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Al-Masri MR (2005) Nutritive value of some agricultural wastes as affected by relatively low gamma irradiation levels and chemical treatments. Bioresour Technol 96:1737–1741CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bai Y, Jiang WY, Lin H, Liu Z, Liu Z (2014) Identification of gamma-irradiated Chinese herbs by thermoluminescence analysis. J Radioanal Nucl Chem 301:125–131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Correcher V, Garcia-Guinea J (2011) Application of the EN 1788 European standard for the control of saffron, pepper and blends. Food Control 22:173–179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Costa de Camargo A, Ferreira de Souza Vieira TM, Regitano-d’Arce MAB, Matias de Alencar S, Calori-Domingues MA, Fillet Spoto MH, Canniatti-Brazaca SG (2012) Gamma irradiation of in-shell and blanched peanuts protects against mycotoxic fungi and retains their nutraceutical components during long-term storage. Int J Mol Sci 13:10935–10958CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Costa de Camargo A, Regitano-d’Arce MAB, Rosa Gallo C, Shahidi F (2015) Gamma-irradiation induced changes in microbiological status, phenolic profile and antioxidant activity of peanut skin. J Funct Foods 12:129–143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Cruz-Zaragoza E, Marcazzó J, Chernov V (2012) Photo- and thermally stimulated luminescence of polyminerals extracted from herbs and spices. Radiat Phys Chem 81:1227–1231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. EN 1788 (2001) Thermoluminescence detection of irradiated food from which silicate minerals can be isolated. European Committee for Standardization Brussels, BelgiumGoogle Scholar
  12. Fletcher SM, Shi Z (2016) An overview of world peanut markets. In: Stalker HT, Wilson RF (eds) Peanuts: genetics, processing, and utilization. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 267–287CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Francisco MLDL, Resurreccion AVA (2008) Functional components in peanuts. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 48:715–746CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Ihsanullah I, Rashid A (2017) Current activities in food irradiation as a sanitary and phytosanitary treatment in the Asia and the Pacific region and a comparison with advanced countries. Food Control 72:345–359CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Jo D, Sanyal B, Lee JW, Kwon JH (2015) Thermoluminescence characterization of isolated minerals to identify oranges exposed to γ-ray, e-beam, and X-ray for quarantine applications. J Radioanal Nucl Chem 303:297–304CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Kim BK, Shahbaz HM, Akram K, Kim CT, Ahn JJ, Kwon JH (2015) The impact of mineral separation procedure on thermoluminescence analysis of non-irradiated dried fish and shellfish. Acta Aliment 44:400–408CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Klevorn MC, Dean LL (2018) A metabolomics-based approach identifies changes in the small molecular weight compound composition of the peanut as a result of dry-roasting. Food Chem 240:1193–1200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Liu X, Guan X, Xing F, Lv C, Dai X, Liu Y (2017) Effect of water activity and temperature on the growth of Aspergillus flavus, the expression of aflatoxin biosynthetic genes and aflatoxin production in shelled peanuts. Food Control 82:325–332CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Marcazzó J, Cruz-Zaragoza E, Mendoza JE, Ramos Reyes E, Brown F (2012) Thermoluminescence study of polyminerals extracted from clove and marjoram for detection purposes. Appl Radiat Isot 71:25–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Marcazzó J, Sanchez-Barrera CE, Urbina-Zavala A, Cruz-Zaragoza E (2015) Photostimulated luminescence detection and radiation effects on cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) spice. Appl Radiat Isot 104:29–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Martins LM, Sant'Ana AS, Pelegrinelli Fungaro MH, Silva JJ, Nascimento M d S d, Frisvad JC, Taniwaki MH (2017) The biodiversity of Aspergillus section Flavi and aflatoxins in the Brazilian peanut production chain. Food Res Int 94:101–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Ogundare FO, Chithambo ML, Oniya EO (2006) Anomalous behavior of thermoluminescence from quartz: a case of glow peaks from a Nigerian quartz. Radiat Meas 41:549–553CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Settaluri VS, Kandala CVK, Puppala N, Sundaram J (2012) Peanuts and their nutritional aspects—a review. Food Nutr Sci 3:1644–1650Google Scholar
  24. Toktamiş H, Yazici AN, Topaksu M (2007) Investigations of the stability of the radiation sensitivity of TL peaks of quartz extracted from tiles. Nucl Instrum Methods Phys Res Sect B 262:69–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Zhao X, Chen J, Du F (2012) Potential use of peanut by-products in food processing: a review. J Food Sci Technol 49:521–529CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. Roman-Lopez
    • 1
    Email author
  • I. B. Lozano
    • 2
    Email author
  • J. A. I. Diaz-Góngora
    • 2
  • J. I. Guzman-Castañeda
    • 3
  • E. Cruz-Zaragoza
    • 4
  1. 1.CONACYT-Instituto de Ciencias NuclearesUniversidad Nacional Autónoma de MéxicoCiudad de MéxicoMexico
  2. 2.Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Centro de Investigación en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnología AvanzadaUnidad LegariaCiudad de MéxicoMexico
  3. 3.Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Escuela Superior de Ingeniería Química e Industrias Extractivas, Edificio 6Unidad Profesional Adolfo López MateosCiudad de MéxicoMexico
  4. 4.Instituto de Ciencias NuclearesUniversidad Nacional Autónoma de MéxicoCiudad de MéxicoMexico

Personalised recommendations