A Green Analytical Method for the Multielemental Determination of Halogens and Sulfur in Pet Food
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A suitable and green analytical method using microwave-induced combustion and ion chromatography with conductivity detection (IC-CD) and mass spectrometry detection (IC-MS) was proposed for the halogens and sulfur determination in pet food using a single analysis. Samples (up to 500 mg) were efficiently digested in a closed system under oxygen pressure (20 bar). Ultrapure water and 50 mmol L−1 or 100 mmol L−1 (NH4)2CO3 were evaluated as absorbing solutions. Trueness was evaluated by recovery tests using standard solution and certified reference materials. In both tests, mean recoveries ranging from 91 to 108% for all analytes were obtained using 50 mmol L−1 (NH4)2CO3 as absorbing solution. AOAC International recommended official methods for Cl and F determination in animal feed were also performed. Results for Cl using proposed method were in agreement with those obtained using AOAC official method, while the results for F were not compared between them because the concentration in the samples using AOAC official method was not detected. Precision was evaluated in terms of repeatability and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) using the proposed method were always lower than 8%. The proposed method presents several advantages when compared with AOAC International official methods such as the multielemental determination capability, lower waste generation, lower limits of detection, lower RSDs, and higher sample throughput. Sixteen samples destined to cats or dogs from different manufacturers were analyzed and the results showed a wide variation. These results indicate that an efficient quality control should be performed, and the proposed method is an excellent alternative as a new analytical tool for routine analysis of pet food.
KeywordsPet food analysis Food safety Halogens determination Microwave-induced combustion Ion chromatography Mass spectrometry
The authors are grateful to Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES-Brazil) finance code 001, Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq-Brazil) grant numbers 409357/2016-2 and 309424/2016-0, and Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul (FAPERGS-Brazil) grant number 16/2551-0000561-8, for supporting this study.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
Julia Eisenhardt de Mello declares that she has no conflict of interest. Diogo La Rosa Novo declares that he has no conflict of interest. Gilberto Silva Coelho Junior declares that he has no conflict of interest. Priscila Tessmer Scaglioni declares that she has no conflict of interest. Marcia Foster Mesko declares that she has no conflict of interest.
This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.
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