Improvement of Enzymatic Assisted Extraction Conditions on Anthocyanin Recovery from Different Varieties of V. vinifera and V. labrusca Grape Pomaces
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The incomplete anthocyanin extraction during the industrial processes turns grape pomace into an inexpensive source of phenolic compounds. The effects of temperature and enzyme preparation percentage (% E/S) on the anthocyanin recovery from grape pomaces of eight grape varieties were evaluated by their physicochemical characteristics and phenolic composition. A factorial 22 design with center point was used to select the preferred conditions for extraction, and the variables of temperature, enzyme preparation, and their interaction were assessed. The grape skin characteristics affected the anthocyanins’ content and their recovery yield, and different improvement conditions were found for each variety of grape. Anthocyanin extraction from Cabernet Sauvignon—the variety which showed the highest percentage of anthocyanin recovery (over 50%)—was improved. The lowest tested temperature (40 °C) and percentage of preparation enzymatic (0.25% E/S) promoted higher anthocyanin extraction, resulting in a natural food colorant with 2.67 g anthocyanins/100 g grape skin dry basis (db). The extraction improvement allowed for a non-toxic natural extract rich in anthocyanins to be obtained; a natural additive which can be considered for potential food industry use in place of synthetic dyes, especially into acidic matrices.
KeywordsEnzymatic assisted Grape pomace Anthocyanin recovery Food colorant Natural additives Bioactive compounds
The authors are grateful to Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS) for technical assistance. We thank San Giovanni Winery, Pinheiral Winery, agroindustry Sbardelotto, and Buono Winery (winery and juice industries from Brazil) for providing grape pomaces.
Financial support was provided by CAPES and CNPq for this research.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
Maria Jara Montibeller declares that she has no conflict of interest. Patric de Lima Monteiro declares that he has no conflict of interest. Liana Stoll declares that she has no conflict of interest. Diego Santiago Tupuna-Yerovi declares that he has no conflict of interest. Eliseu Rodrigues declares that he has no conflict of interest. Rafael Costa Rodrigues declares that he has no conflict of interest. Alessandro de Oliveira Rios declares that he has no conflict of interest. Vitor Manfroi declares that he has no conflict of interest.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.
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