Simultaneous Determination of Ethylenebisdithiocarbamate (EBDC) and Propylenebisdithiocarbamate (PBDC) Fungicides in Vegetables, Fruits, and Mushrooms by Ultra-High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry

  • Jing Li
  • Chao Dong
  • Qin Yang
  • Wenjin An
  • ZunTao Zheng
  • Bining JiaoEmail author


The present investigation concerns the development and validation of a simplified and sensitive method for simultaneous determination of ethylenebisdithiocarbamate (EBDC) and propylenebisdithiocarbamate (PBDC) fungicides in fruits, vegetables, and mushrooms. In this method, EBDCs and PBDCs were decomposed in an alkaline medium and derivatized with dimethyl sulfate to dimethyl ethylenebisdithiocarbamate (EBDC-dimethyl) and dimethyl propylenebisdithiocarbamate (PBDC-dimethyl), respectively. After the dispersive solid-phase extraction, the resulting methyl derivatives were analyzed by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) operated in positive electrospray ionization mode within 5 min. In order to minimize the adverse impacts of the target compound degradation on data analysis, the stability of EBDC-dimethyl and PBDC-dimethyl both in solvent and matrix during the storage was evaluated. And the results indicated that EBDC-dimethyl and PBDC-dimethyl were sufficiently stable both in the extraction solvent (acetonitrile) and vegetal food sample matrices. The mean recoveries all through the procedure from EBDCs to EBDC-dimethyl and from PBDCs to PBDC-dimethyl in all matrices were in the range of 85.2–101.6% and 86.1–106.9%, respectively. The limits of quantification of the above two dithiocarbamate (DTC) fungicides were 0.4–1.0 μg/kg in the form of EBDC-dimethyl, and 0.5–1.5 μg/kg in the form of PBDC-dimethyl, respectively. As for mancozeb and propineb, the limits of quantification of these two representative DTCs fungicides in seven food matrices were within the range of 0.6–1.6 μg/kg and 0.8–2.5 μg/kg, respectively. The established method was applied for simultaneous determination of EBDC and PBDC fungicides in the real samples, indicating its performance in the surveillance of fungicidal dithiocarbamate residues in fruits, vegetables, and mushrooms samples.


Ethylenebisdithiocarbamates (EBDCs) Propylenebisdithiocarbamate (PBDCs) Ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) Methylation 


Funding Information

This work was financially supported by the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (SWU118059) and the Nature Science Foundation of China (NSFC 31301686).

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals subjects.

Supplementary material

12161_2019_1538_Fig5_ESM.png (61 kb)
Fig. S1

Effects of (A) the concentration of dimethyl sulfate in acetonitrile(with 0.1 g L-cysteine, 0.5 g EDTA-4Na and reaction time 15 min), (B) the amount of EDTA-4Na (with 0.1 g L-cysteine, 0.1 M dimethyl sulfate and reaction time 15 min), (C) the reaction time(with 0.1 g L-cysteine, 0.5 g EDTA-4Na and 0.1 M dimethyl sulfate) and (D) the amount of L-cysteine (with 0.1 M dimethyl sulfate and 0.5 g EDTA-4Na and reaction time 15 min) on the yield of EBDC-dimethyl and PBDC-dimethyl produced from mancozeb and propineb, respectively. (PNG 61 kb)

12161_2019_1538_MOESM1_ESM.tif (908 kb)
High resolution image (TIF 908 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jing Li
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Chao Dong
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Qin Yang
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Wenjin An
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • ZunTao Zheng
    • 4
  • Bining Jiao
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    Email author
  1. 1.Citrus Research InstituteSouthwest University & Chinese Academy of Agricultural SciencesChongqingPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.Laboratory of Quality and Safety Risk Assessment for Citrus ProductsMinistry of AgricultureChongqingPeople’s Republic of China
  3. 3.Quality Supervision and Testing Center for Citrus and SeedlingMinistry of AgricultureChongqingPeople’s Republic of China
  4. 4.Institute for the Control of AgrochemicalsMinistry of Agriculture and Rural AffairsBeijingPeople’s Republic of China

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