The Phenolic Fraction of Italian Extra Virgin Olive Oils: Elucidation Through Combined Liquid Chromatography and NMR Approaches

  • Jitka Klikarová
  • Archimede Rotondo
  • Francesco CacciolaEmail author
  • Lenka Česlová
  • Paola Dugo
  • Luigi Mondello
  • Francesca Rigano


Extra virgin olive oils (EVOOs) contain various bioactive compounds belonging to phenol family. These compounds are traditionally determined by liquid chromatography, despite such a method implies some issues that have to be taken into account. Therefore, our study was focused on the employment of reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to diode array detection and electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (RP-HPLC-DAD/ESI-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) approaches, which are here compared in order to provide thorough information about the phenol profile in EVOOs. Data comparison led to matching results with some experimental divergence as expected from a challenging coupled analysis concerning dynamically unstable compounds. Specific concerns of both techniques are described shedding light on the potential advantages arising from the employment of the quick NMR and short and sensitive HPLC analysis. This is the first step toward a joined approach for the future analysis of the phenolic profile.


Extra virgin olive oils (EVOOs) Phenols HPLC DAD ESI-MS NMR 



The research was performed within the context of the project AGER2-Rif 2016-0169 “Valorizzazione dei prodotti italiani derivanti dall’oliva attraverso tecniche analitiche innovative”-“Violin”. The authors are grateful to Premio “Il Magnifico” for the supply of EVOOs investigated in this work. The authors gratefully acknowledge the Shimadzu Corporation and Merck Life Science (Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany) for their continuous support.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Jitka Klikarová declares that she has no conflict of interest. Archimede Rotondo declares that he has no conflict of interest. Francesco Cacciola declares that he has no conflict of interest. Lenka Česlová declares that she has no conflict of interest. Paola Dugo declares that she has no conflict of interest. Luigi Mondello declares that he has no conflict of interest. Francesca Rigano declares that she has no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

Informed Consent

Informed consent is not applicable for this study.

Supplementary material

12161_2019_1508_MOESM1_ESM.docx (851 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 850 kb)


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemical TechnologyUniversity of PardubicePardubiceCzech Republic
  2. 2.Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche, Biologiche, Farmaceutiche ed AmbientaliUniversity of MessinaMessinaItaly
  3. 3.Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche, Odontoiatriche e delle Immagini Morfologiche e FunzionaliUniversity of MessinaMessinaItaly
  4. 4.Chromaleont s.r.l., c/o Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche, Biologiche, Farmaceutiche ed AmbientaliUniversity of MessinaMessinaItaly
  5. 5.Department of MedicineUniversity Campus Bio-Medico of RomeRomeItaly

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