Food Analytical Methods

, Volume 12, Issue 3, pp 729–741 | Cite as

GC-MS-Olfactometric Differentiation of Aroma-Active Compounds in Turkish Heat-Treated Sausages by Application of Aroma Extract Dilution Analysis

  • Kevser Tuba Ozkara
  • Asghar Amanpour
  • Gamze Guclu
  • Hasim Kelebek
  • Serkan SelliEmail author


Aroma and aroma-active compounds of the heat-treated Turkish sausages obtained from beef, turkey, and chicken meats were studied. Aroma compounds were isolated by using solvent-assisted flavor evaporation and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry-olfactometry (GC-MS-O) for the first time. A total of 47, 63, and 64 aroma compounds, including esters, terpenes, terpenols, aldehydes, phenols, ketones, acids, alcohols, lactones, furans, sulfur compounds, and pyrazines, were identified and quantified in the beef, turkey, and chicken sausages, respectively. The most prominent differences between the sausage samples were as follows: (E)-sabinene hydrate, β-cubebene, 2-hexanol, 5-methyl-2-heptanol, 2-heptanol, 2-nonanol, 4-methyl-3-hexanol, and heptanoic acid were detected only in chicken sausage samples; (Z)-p-mentha-1(7)8-dien-2-ol, dimethylallyl alcohol, 1,2-ethanediol, furfuryl alcohol, furfural, 2-ethyl-6-methylpyrazine, trimethyl pyrazine, and 2(5H)-furanone were detected only in turkey sausage samples; and 2-butoxyethanol, octanoic acid, and nonanoic acid were detected only in beef sausage samples. The aroma-active compounds of sausages were elucidated by using aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) for the first time. A combined total of 31 different aroma-active compounds were detected. The aroma-actives with the greatest flavor dilution (FD) factors in beef (FD 1024 and odor activity value (OAV) 178.07), and chicken (FD 2048 and OAV 262.63) sausages were γ-terpinene, and in turkey (FD 2048 and OAV 353.86) sausages were linalool.


Turkish sausages Aroma-active compounds OAV GC-MS-O SAFE 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Kevser Tuba Ozkara declares that she has no conflict of interest. Asghar Amanpour declares that he has no conflict of interest. Gamze Guclu declares that she has no conflict of interest. Hasim Kelebek declares that he has no conflict of interest. Serkan Selli declares that he has no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

Informed Consent

Not applicable.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kevser Tuba Ozkara
    • 1
  • Asghar Amanpour
    • 2
    • 3
  • Gamze Guclu
    • 2
  • Hasim Kelebek
    • 4
  • Serkan Selli
    • 2
    • 3
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Food Technology, Nizip Vocational High SchoolGaziantep UniversityGaziantepTurkey
  2. 2.Department of Food Engineering, Faculty of AgricultureCukurova UniversityAdanaTurkey
  3. 3.Department of Biotechnology, Institute of Natural and Applied SciencesCukurova UniversityAdanaTurkey
  4. 4.Department of Food TechnologyAdana Science and Technology UniversityAdanaTurkey

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