Food Analytical Methods

, Volume 12, Issue 3, pp 644–651 | Cite as

Fast Determination of Main Bioamines and Precursor Amino Acids in Beer by Miniaturized Electrophoresis Using Gold Nanoparticle Composite Electrode

  • Dan Luo
  • Xiaoshuang Zhao
  • Yiliang Zheng
  • Yaolu Ma
  • Fei Cun
  • Jiannong Ye
  • Qingcui ChuEmail author


A gold nanoparticle/reduced graphene oxide composite electrode (AuNP/rGO) was fabricated for the determination of the main bioamines and their precursor amino acids in beer based on a miniaturized capillary electrophoresis with amperometric detection system (mini-CE-AD). The surface morphology and structure of the synthetic AuNP/rGO material were observed by scanning electron microscope, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscope, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The analytical performance of the composite electrode was verified by cyclic voltammetry and mini-CE-AD approaches. Four target analytes were separated within 7 min in 50 mM Na2B4O7-NaOH buffer (pH 9.35) at a separation voltage of 3 kV. This developed method has been applied to the beer samples, and acceptable recovery could be obtained ranging from 84.5 to 108%. The assay results indicated that this AuNP/rGO composite electrode has the advantages of simple preparation, low working potential (+ 0.65 V vs. SCE), good sensitivity (0.13~0.87 μM), and satisfactory reproducibility. This proposed method provides an alternative for rapid analysis of food safety.


Amino acids Amperometric detection Beer Bioamines Miniaturized capillary electrophoresis Nanoparticle composite electrode 



This work was supported by the Open Funds of the State Key Laboratory of Electroanalytical Chemistry (SKLEAC201801) and the National Students Innovative Experimental Project of China (201810269005G).

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Dan Luo declares that she has no conflict of interest. Xiaoshuang Zhao declares that she has no conflict of interest. Yiliang Zheng declares that she has no conflict of interest. Yaolu Ma declares that she has no conflict of interest. Fei Cun declares that she has no conflict of interest. Jiannong Ye declares that he has no conflict of interest. Qingcui Chu declares that she has no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects.

Informed Consent

Not applicable.

Supplementary material

12161_2018_1395_MOESM1_ESM.docx (661 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 661 kb)


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Chemistry and Molecular EngineeringEast China Normal UniversityShanghaiPeople’s Republic of China

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