Food Analytical Methods

, Volume 12, Issue 2, pp 544–557 | Cite as

Comparison of Aroma Profiles of Traditional and Modern Zhenjiang Aromatic Vinegars and Their Changes During the Vinegar Aging by SPME-GC-MS and GC-O

  • Sam Al-Dalali
  • Fuping ZhengEmail author
  • Baoguo SunEmail author
  • Feng Chen


Zhenjiang aromatic vinegar is one of the most popular vinegars in China, which can be produced by either traditional or modern techniques. Aroma profiles of the traditional Zhenjiang aromatic vinegar (TZAV) and the modern Zhenjiang aromatic vinegar (MZAV) at different stages of their aging were analyzed by headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) with an aid of DVB/CAR/PDMS fiber combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O). A total of 53 volatile compounds were identified. Among them, 43 aromas were positively identified after comparison with their corresponding authentic compounds. Two volatiles, including isopentyl alcohol and butyl benzoate, were only identified in TZAV, while propiophenone was only identified in MZAV. In addition, some volatiles were found to be generated during the aging period, which included isopentyl alcohol, 3-(methylthio)propyl acetate, and 2-acetoxy-3-butanone in the TZAV samples, and 2-ethyl-1-hexanol, octanoic acid, propiophenone, and dimethyl trisulfide in the MZAV samples. The total amount of volatile compounds in the MZAV was greater than its counterpart TZAV. Moreover, 29 odor-active compounds were recognized by GC-O analysis, while 25 of them were confirmed by their authentic compounds, and their perceived odors included sweet, acid, buttery, floral, herbal, fruit, fresh, pungent, almond, and geraniol notes.


Zhenjiang vinegar Aging Aromas HS-SPME GC-MS GC-O 



The authors would especially like to thank the manufacturer Jiangsu Hengshun Vinegar Co. Ltd., to provide the traditional and modern Zhenjiang vinegar samples, and Mr. Shenghu Zhu in Jiangsu Hengshun Vinegar Co. Ltd., who supplied us the photos for the different steps of both techniques of Zhenjiang aromatic vinegar.


This work was financially supported by the National Key R&D Program of China (2016YFD0400500).

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Sam Al-Dalali declares that he has no conflict of interest. Fuping Zheng declares that he has no conflict of interest. Baoguo Sun declares that he has no conflict of interest. Feng Chen declares that he has no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

Informed Consent

Not applicable.


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Food Nutrition and Human HealthBeijing Technology and Business UniversityBeijingChina
  2. 2.Department of Food Science and TechnologyIbb UniversityIbbYemen
  3. 3.Department of Food, Nutrition and Packaging SciencesClemson UniversityClemsonUSA

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