Rapid Determination of Sulfonamides in Chicken Muscle and Milk Using Efficient Graphene Oxide-Based Monolith On-Line Solid-Phase Extraction Coupled with Liquid Chromatography–Tandem Mass Spectrometry
A graphene oxide-incorporated monolithic column was fabricated and developed as an on-line solid-phase extraction sorbent coupled with LC-MS/MS for the automatic and fast determination of 16 sulfonamides in chicken muscle and milk samples. The proposed hybrid sorbent was easily produced from graphene oxide and a single crosslinker of ethylene glycol dimethacrylate. It gave favorable properties including uniformer structure, larger specific surface area, and enhanced column efficiency compared to the neat polymer monolith. Loading and eluting solutions affecting the on-line SPE were studied in detail. Under the optimized conditions, the on-line solid phase extraction coupled with LC-MS/MS method was achieved in 23 min. The developed method exhibited good linearity in the range of 1–100 μg/kg for sulfonamides in milk samples, and 2–200 μg/kg in chicken muscle samples, with r ranging from 0.993 to 0.999. The detection limits (S/N = 3) were 0.3 μg/kg in milk and 0.6 μg/kg in chicken muscle. The spiked recoveries were in the range of 70.3–98.5% and 79.0–108.0%, with a precision of 5.19–9.37% and 4.04–8.57%, respectively. Furthermore, the graphene oxide-incorporated monolithic sorbent allowed more than 450 extraction cycles without any loss in the extraction efficiency. The developed method was successfully applied for the determination of 16 sulfonamides in milk and chicken muscle samples.
KeywordsGraphene oxide On-line solid-phase extraction Sulfonamides Milk Chicken muscle
This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (no. 21305028), the Natural Science Foundation of Hebei Province, China (no. H2017209232 and no. H2016209018), the Research Foundation of the Education Bureau of Hebei Province, China (no. ZD2018014), and the Training Foundation of the North China University of Science and Technology (no. JQ201717).
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
Xue-Lei Chen declares no competing financial interest.
Lian-Feng Ai declares no competing financial interest.
Ya-Qing Cao declares no competing financial interest.
Qi-Xun Nian declares no competing financial interest.
Ye-Qing Jia declares no competing financial interest.
Yu-Lan Hao declares no competing financial interest.
Man-Man Wang declares no competing financial interest.
Xue-Sheng Wang declares no competing financial interest.
This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.
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