Food Analytical Methods

, Volume 12, Issue 1, pp 148–159 | Cite as

Extraction Optimization of Phenolic Extracts from Carioca Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Using Response Surface Methodology

  • Francine Gomes Basso Los
  • Acácio Antonio Ferreira Zielinski
  • José Pedro Wojeicchowski
  • Alessandro Nogueira
  • Ivo Mottin DemiateEmail author


There is a large consumption of beans in developing countries for their nutritional quality: high contents of complex carbohydrates, such as starch and fiber together with considerable amounts of protein. Recently, beans have also been reported as good sources of phenolic compounds. Studies upon phenolic compounds in Carioca beans are relevant because these pulses are consumed every day by millions of people, and can be associated with health-promoting activities. In this study, phenolic compounds of beans have been extracted using different extraction methods. As the results can be affected by several factors and there is no standardized methodology to extract phenolic from Carioca beans, this paper proposes the use of response surface methodology to optimize a phenolic compound extraction method. Three experiments were performed using acetone, methanol, or methanol–HCl (99:1) as solvents. For each solvent, a three-level Box–Behnken design was employed, using the sample-to-solvent ratio, temperature, and solvent concentration as factors. The response variables were total phenolic compounds (TPC); flavonoid contents (FC); and antioxidant capacity, determined by ABTS, DPPH, and FRAP assays. The optimized conditions for each solvent were compared to seven other extraction methods proposed in the literature. RP-HPLC-DAD was used to quantify the phenolics of each extract. The results were submitted to principal component analysis (PCA), which showed that the best extraction conditions for Carioca beans, among the ten methods compared, was 70% acetone at 25 °C and a 1:15 sample-to-solvent ratio. Kaempferol and chlorogenic acid were the main flavonoids and phenolic acids, respectively, found in Carioca beans.


Carioca bean Phenolic compounds Solid–liquid extraction Box–Behnken design Principal component analysis 



The authors thank the Brazilian National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq) for the financial support (grants N. 445476/2014-1 and N. 303561/2016-5) and the Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Education Personnel (CAPES/Brazil) for the financial support and scholarships.


Brazilian National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq)—grants N. 445476/2014-1 and N. 303561/2016-5.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Francine Gomes Basso Los declares that she has no conflict of interest. Acácio Antonio Ferreira Zielinski declares that he has no conflict of interest. José Pedro Wojeicchowski declares that he has no conflict of interest. Alessandro Nogueira declares that he has no conflict of interest. Ivo Mottin Demiate declares that he has no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects.

Informed Consent

Not applicable


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Graduate Program in Food Science and TechnologyState University of Ponta GrossaPonta GrossaBrazil
  2. 2.Department of Chemical Engineering and Food EngineeringFederal University of Santa Catarina (UFSC)FlorianópolisBrazil

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