Extraction Optimization of Phenolic Extracts from Carioca Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Using Response Surface Methodology
- 108 Downloads
There is a large consumption of beans in developing countries for their nutritional quality: high contents of complex carbohydrates, such as starch and fiber together with considerable amounts of protein. Recently, beans have also been reported as good sources of phenolic compounds. Studies upon phenolic compounds in Carioca beans are relevant because these pulses are consumed every day by millions of people, and can be associated with health-promoting activities. In this study, phenolic compounds of beans have been extracted using different extraction methods. As the results can be affected by several factors and there is no standardized methodology to extract phenolic from Carioca beans, this paper proposes the use of response surface methodology to optimize a phenolic compound extraction method. Three experiments were performed using acetone, methanol, or methanol–HCl (99:1) as solvents. For each solvent, a three-level Box–Behnken design was employed, using the sample-to-solvent ratio, temperature, and solvent concentration as factors. The response variables were total phenolic compounds (TPC); flavonoid contents (FC); and antioxidant capacity, determined by ABTS, DPPH, and FRAP assays. The optimized conditions for each solvent were compared to seven other extraction methods proposed in the literature. RP-HPLC-DAD was used to quantify the phenolics of each extract. The results were submitted to principal component analysis (PCA), which showed that the best extraction conditions for Carioca beans, among the ten methods compared, was 70% acetone at 25 °C and a 1:15 sample-to-solvent ratio. Kaempferol and chlorogenic acid were the main flavonoids and phenolic acids, respectively, found in Carioca beans.
KeywordsCarioca bean Phenolic compounds Solid–liquid extraction Box–Behnken design Principal component analysis
The authors thank the Brazilian National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq) for the financial support (grants N. 445476/2014-1 and N. 303561/2016-5) and the Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Education Personnel (CAPES/Brazil) for the financial support and scholarships.
Brazilian National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq)—grants N. 445476/2014-1 and N. 303561/2016-5.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
Francine Gomes Basso Los declares that she has no conflict of interest. Acácio Antonio Ferreira Zielinski declares that he has no conflict of interest. José Pedro Wojeicchowski declares that he has no conflict of interest. Alessandro Nogueira declares that he has no conflict of interest. Ivo Mottin Demiate declares that he has no conflict of interest.
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects.
- Akillioglu HG, Karakaya S (2010) Changes in total phenols, total flavonoids, and antioxidant activities of common beans and pinto beans after soaking, cooking, and in vitro digestion process. Food Sci Biotechnol 19:633–639. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10068-010-0089-8
- Belwal T, Dhyani P, Bhatt ID, Rawal RS, Pande V (2016) Optimization extraction conditions for improving phenolic content and antioxidant activity in Berberis asiatica fruits using response surface methodology (RSM). Food Chem 207:115–124. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2016.03.081 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Chandrasekara A, Rasek OA, John JA, Chandrasekara N, Shahidi F (2016) Solvent and extraction conditions control the assayable phenolic content and antioxidant activities of seeds of black beans, canola and millet. J Am Oil Chem Soc 93:275–283. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11746-015-2760-y CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- CONAB (2017) Companhia Nacional de Abastecimento. https://www.conab.gov.br/. Accessed 20 Feb 2018
- Doria E, Campion B, Sparvoli F, Tava A, Nielsen E (2012) Anti-nutrient components and metabolites with health implications in seeds of 10 common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. and Phaseolus lunatus L.) landraces cultivated in southern Italy. J Food Compos Anal 26:72–80. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfca.2012.03.005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Espada-Bellido E, Ferreiro-González M, Carrera C, Palma M, Barroso CG, Barbero GF (2017) Optimization of the ultrasound-assisted extraction of anthocyanins and total phenolic compounds in mulberry (Morus nigra) pulp. Food Chem 219:23–32. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2016.09.122 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- FAOSTAT (2017) Food and Agriculture data. http://www.fao.org/faostat/en/#home. Accessed 20 Feb 2018
- Gomes SVF, Portugal LA, dos Anjos JP, de Jesus ON, de Oliveira EJ, David JP, David JM (2017) Accelerated solvent extraction of phenolic compounds exploiting a Box-Behnken design and quantification of five flavonoids by HPLC-DAD in Passiflora species. Microchem J 132:28–35. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.microc.2016.12.021 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Marquezi M, Gervin VM, Watanabe LB, Bassinello PZ, Amante ER (2016) Physical and chemical properties of starch and flour from different common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivars. Braz J Food Technol 19. https://doi.org/10.1590/1981-6723.0516
- Mojica L, Meyer A, Berhow MA, de Mejía EG (2015) Bean cultivars (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) have similar high antioxidant capacity, in vitro inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase while diverse phenolic composition and concentration. Food Res Int 69:38–48. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2014.12.007 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Rafiee Z, Jafari SM, Alami M, Khomeiri M (2011) Microwave-assisted extraction of phenolic compounds from olive leaves; a comparison with maceration (2011). The JAPS, 21(21):738–745Google Scholar
- Rocha-Guzmán NE, Herzog A, González-Laredo RF, Ibarra-Pérez FJ, Zambrano-Galván G, Gallegos-Infante JA (2007) Antioxidant and antimutagenic activity of phenolic compounds in three different colour groups of common bean cultivars (Phaseolus vulgaris). Food Chem 103:521–527. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2006.08.021 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Sharma S, Saxena DC, Riar CS (2016) Analysing the effect of germination on phenolics, dietary fibres, minerals and γ-amino butyric acid contents of barnyard millet (Echinochloa frumentaceae). Food Biosci 13:60–68. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fbio.2015.12.007
- Singleton VL, Rossi JA, Jr J (1965) Colorimetry of total phenolics with phosphomolybdic-phosphotungstic acid reagents. AJEV 16:144–158Google Scholar
- Zhang H, Wang S (2016) Optimization of total polyphenols extraction from Vigna angularis and their antioxidant activities. Indian J Pharm Sci 78:608–614. https://doi.org/10.4172/pharmaceutical-sciences.1000159 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Zielinski AAF, Haminiuk CWI, Nunes CA, Schnitzler E, van Ruth SM, Granato D (2014) Chemical composition, sensory properties, provenance, and bioactivity of fruit juices as assessed by Chemometrics: a critical review and guideline. Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf 13:300–316. https://doi.org/10.1111/1541-4337.12060 CrossRefGoogle Scholar