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Food Analytical Methods

, Volume 12, Issue 1, pp 108–120 | Cite as

Development of a Method for Determination of Target Toxic Carbonyl Compounds in Must and Wine Using HS-SPME-GC/MS-SIM After Preliminary GC×GC/TOFMS Analyses

  • Daiani Cecchin Ferreira
  • Karolina Cardoso Hernandes
  • Karine Primieri Nicolli
  • Érica A. Souza-Silva
  • Vitor Manfroi
  • Claudia Alcaraz Zini
  • Juliane Elisa WelkeEmail author
Article

Abstract

A gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection in selected ion monitoring mode (GC/qMS-SIM) method, preceded by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with a time-of-flight mass spectrometric detector (GC×GC/TOFMS) analyses to identify possible coelutions, was validated for the simultaneous determination of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, furfural, and ethyl carbamate in must and wines. Derivatized acetaldehyde and acrolein coeluted with other compounds and were resolved in the second chromatographic dimension (2D) of GC×GC/TOFMS. The most intense ions of the mass spectra of the analytes that were not present in the mass spectra of interfering compounds were used in GC/qMS-SIM. Figures of merit demonstrated the appropriateness of the developed GC/qMS-SIM method, including recovery (90–102%), relative standard deviation obtained in repeatability, and precision assays that were lower than 9 and 12%, respectively. Limits of detection and quantification for all compounds demonstrated the adequate sensitivity of the method for the quantification of carbonyl compounds (values lower than 0.8 and 1.5 μg L−1, respectively). Results confirmed that furan-containing compounds may be impartially analyzed using HS-SPME-qGC/MS without interference of artifact formation during extraction/desorption. In addition, the importance of adjusting ethanol content according to the level of ethanol in samples has been demonstrated. Ethyl carbamate was not detected in analyzed samples, while formaldehyde was found in levels lower than LOQ (0.6 μg L−1). Acetaldehyde (19.9 to 44.0 μg L−1) and furfural (1.1 to 6.9 μg L−1) were found in all samples. Acrolein was detected in 75% of samples in levels ranging from 0.7 to 50.2 μg L−1.

Keywords

HS-SPME Vinification GC/qMS Toxic compounds Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography 

Notes

Funding

This study was funded by the National Council of Technological and Scientific Development (Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico, CNPq. Project BJT 401581/2014-4; CNPq project Pq 306067/2016-1), the Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Education Personnel (Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior, CAPES), and Research Support Foundation of Rio Grande do Sul (Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, FAPERGS, Edital Pesquisador Gaúcho, Project 1995-2551/13-7).

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Daiani F. Cecchin declares that she has no conflict of interest. Karolina C. Hernandes declares that she has no conflict of interest. Karine P. nicolli declares that she has no conflict of interest. Érica A. Souza-Silva declares that she has no conflict of interest. Vitor Manfroi declares that he has no conflict of interest. Claudia A. Zini declares that she has no conflict of interest. Juliane Elisa Welke declares that she has no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

Informed Consent

Not applicable.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Daiani Cecchin Ferreira
    • 1
  • Karolina Cardoso Hernandes
    • 1
  • Karine Primieri Nicolli
    • 2
  • Érica A. Souza-Silva
    • 2
    • 3
  • Vitor Manfroi
    • 1
  • Claudia Alcaraz Zini
    • 2
  • Juliane Elisa Welke
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Instituto de Ciência e Tecnologia de Alimentos (ICTA)Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS)Porto AlegreBrazil
  2. 2.UFRGS, Instituto de QuímicaPorto AlegreBrazil
  3. 3.Instituto de Ciências Ambientais, Químicas e FarmacêuticasUniversidade Federal de São Paulo (UNIFESP)DiademaBrazil

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