Analytical Method Validation for Determining Organophosphorus Pesticides in Baby Foods by a Modified Liquid–Liquid Microextraction Method and Gas Chromatography–Ion Trap/Mass Spectrometry Analysis
Baby food is made specifically for babies between the ages of 4/6 months up to 2 years, and it comes in multiple varieties and tastes. This paper proposes a protocol for a rapid and reliable determination of 19 organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) by means of a method based on ultrasound-vortex-assisted liquid–liquid microextraction coupled with a gas chromatography–ion trap mass spectrometry (UVALLME–GC-IT/MS). The method development starts from the extraction solvent evaluation, i.e., n-heptane; the solution, held for 5 min on the vortex mixer and for 6 min in an ultrasonic bath to 100 W for favoring the solvent dispersion and the determinant extraction, is centrifuged at 4000 rpm for 30 min: 1 μL of the organic extract is injected into the GC-IT/MS. All the analytical parameters investigated are deeply discussed; LODs/LOQs (0.2–1.3 and 0.5–2.9 ng/g) and recoveries (81–109%) are compared with other papers dealing the determination of OPs in baby food matrix. The whole method has been applied to real commercial freeze-dried and soft baby food samples: the results do not show any significant contaminant values.
KeywordsLLME Vortex GC-IT/MS Organophosphorous pesticides Baby food
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
Ivan Notardonato declares that he has no conflict of interest. Mario Vincenzo Russo declares that he has no conflict of interest. Matteo Vitali declares that he has no conflict of interest. Carmela Protano declares that he has no conflict of interest. Pasquale Avino declares that he has no conflict of interest.
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects and so the ethical approval is not necessary and not required.
Not applicable. This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects.
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