A Fast and Simple Method for Determination of Vitamin E in Infant Formula by Dispersive Liquid-Liquid Microextraction Combined with HPLC-UV
- 85 Downloads
Developing a simple and fast method for quantification of vitamins in complex matrixes is one of the important issues in quality control of foods such as milk. In this study, after introducing a new method for quantification of vitamin E in infant formula, its content was compared to the label claims. In this study, dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) procedure with acetonitrile and chloroform as dispersive and extraction solvents, respectively, was used for isolation and clean-up of vitamin E from infant formula samples without the need for saponification. Then, reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) composed of a C18 column as stationary phase and the mixture of acetonitrile, methanol, and water (91:8:1%) as mobile phase using a standard addition method was employed for quantification of vitamin E (α-tocopheryl acetate) with UV detection at 296 nm. After method validation under the optimum conditions, the method provided a linear range with a determination coefficient (R2) of 0.99 and acceptable accuracy and precision. Results showed that the developed method is an appropriate method for quality control of infant formulas. The advantage of DLLME compared with saponification process and liquid-liquid extraction is the decrease of organic solvent consumption and proposing of a simple and fast method for analysis of vitamin E in infant formula. Application of the developed method for analysis of vitamin E in infant formulas on the market showed there was a considerable difference between labeled and obtained content in most of the samples.
KeywordsDispersive liquid-liquid microextraction HPLC Infant formula Vitamin E Intake Labeled content
This study was funded by the Vice Chancellor for Research of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran, for a partial financial support, and it is a part of F. Sardikia’s M.S. thesis (No. 10) registered at Faculty of Pharmacy, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
Fatemeh Sadrykia declares that she has no conflict of interest. Ali Shayanfar declares that he has no conflict of interest. Hadi Valizadeh declares that he has no conflict of interest. Mahboob Nemati declares that he has no conflict of interest.
This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.
- Altunay N, Gürkan R (2016) Simultaneous determination of antimony and boron in beverage and dairy products by flame atomic absorption spectrometry after separation and preconcentration by cloud-point extraction. Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess 33:271–281Google Scholar
- Amoli-Diva M, Taherimaslak Z, Allahyari M, Pourghazi K, Manafi MH (2015) Application of dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction coupled with vortex-assisted hydrophobic magnetic nanoparticles based solid-phase extraction for determination of aflatoxin M1 in milk samples by sensitive micelle enhanced spectrofluorimetry. Talanta 134:98–104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Cannoosamy K, Jeewon R (2016) A critical assessment of nutrition labelling and determinants of its use and understanding. Prog Nutr 18:195–204Google Scholar
- Ishizaki A, Saito K, Hanioka N, Narimatsu S, Kataoka H (2010) Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in food samples by automated on-line in-tube solid-phase microextraction coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection. J Chromatogr A 1217:5555–5563CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Karami-Osboo R, Miri R, Javidnia K, Kobarfard F (2016) Simultaneous chloramphenicol and florfenicol determination by a validated DLLME-HPLC-UV method in pasteurized milk. Iran J Pharm Res 15(3):361–368Google Scholar
- Lennox A, Sommerville J, Ong K, Henderson H, Allen R (2013) Diet and nutrition survey of infants and young children, 2011. A survey carried out on behalf of the Department of Health and Food Standards AgencyGoogle Scholar
- Mahan LK, Raymond JL (2016) Krause’s food & the nutrition care process. Elsevier, AmestrdamGoogle Scholar
- McMahon A, Christiansen S, Shine L, Loi C, Dowell D (2013) Simultaneous determination of 13-cis and all-trans vitamin a palmitate (retinyl palmitate), vitamin a acetate (retinyl acetate), and total vitamin E (α-tocopherol and dl-α-tocopherol acetate) in infant formula and adult nutritionals by normal phase HPLC: first action 2012.10. J AOAC Int 96:1073–1081CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Mohamed R, Richoz PJ, Gremaud E, Mottier P, Yilmaz E, Tabet JC, Guy PA (2007) Advantages of molecularly imprinted polymers LC-ESI-MS/MS for the selective extraction and quantification of chloramphenicol in milk-based matrixes. Comparison with a classical sample preparation. Anal Chem 79:9557–9565CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Mousavi MM, Nemati M, Alizadeh Nabili AA, Mahmoudpour M, Arefhosseini S (2016) Application of dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction followed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry as effective tool for trace analysis of organochlorine pesticide residues in honey samples. J Iran Chem Soc 13:2211–2218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Padró JM, Pellegrino Vidal RB, Echevarria RN, Califano AN, Reta MR (2015) Development of an ionic-liquid-based dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction method for the determination of antichagasic drugs in human breast milk: optimization by central composite design. J Sep Sci 38:1591–1600CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Ross C, Caballero B, Cousins RJ, Tucker KL, Ziegler TR (2014) Modern nutrition in health and disease. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
- Shammugasamy B, Ramakrishnan Y, Ghazali HM, Muhammad K (2013) Combination of saponification and dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction for the determination of tocopherols and tocotrienols in cereals by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. J Chromatogr A 1300:31–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Viñas P, Bravo-Bravo M, López-García I, Pastor-Belda M, Hernández-Córdoba M (2014a) Pressurized liquid extraction and dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction for determination of tocopherols and tocotrienols in plant foods by liquid chromatography with fluorescence and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry detection. Talanta 119:98–104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Viñas P, Pastor-Belda M, Campillo N, Bravo-Bravo M, Hernández-Córdoba M (2014b) Capillary liquid chromatography combined with pressurized liquid extraction and dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction for the determination of vitamin E in cosmetic products. J Pharm Biomed Anal 94:173–179CrossRefGoogle Scholar