Integrated Analytical Methods to Characterize Lipids from Prosopis spp. and Ceratonia siliqua Seed Germ Flour
Flour from seed germ of European carob (Ceratonia siliqua) and South American algarrobo (Prosopis spp.) is a potential ingredient for health-promoting baked products. Herein, lipids from germ of three Argentinean Prosopis (P. alba, P. nigra, and P. ruscifolia) and one European carob species were characterized in detail, exploiting an array of up-to-date analytical techniques. Total lipids ranged from 7.1 to 8.1% (w/w). Linoleic acid (C18:2, ω-6) predominated the GC flame ionization detector profiles of fatty acid in all samples (43.3–50.6%). Prosopis spp. contained 6–7% of C20–C24 fatty acids and, consistently, C56–C60 triacylglycerols, as detected by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry (MS), which were practically missing in C. siliqua germ. Phospholipids were isolated by hydroxyapatite chromatography, characterized by MALDI-TOF MS and grossly quantified by attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy. Because of a relatively high content (9.5–11.8%, v/v), phospholipids might increase the antioxidant potential and improve the baking performances of flour fortified with carob and algarrobo seed germ.
KeywordsCeratonia siliqua Prosopis spp. Seed germ lipids GC-FID MALDI-TOF MS ATR-FTIR
The present investigation has been carried out in the framework of the CNR/CONICET (Italy/Argentina) bilateral research agreement 2015–2016 awarded to G. M. and M. C. P.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.
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