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Food Analytical Methods

, Volume 12, Issue 4, pp 1028–1039 | Cite as

Fabrication of a Structure-Specific Molecular Imprinted Polymer–Based Electrochemical Sensor Based on CuNP-Decorated Vinyl-Functionalized Graphene for the Detection of Parathion Methyl in Vegetable and Fruit Samples

  • M. P. Sooraj
  • Beena MathewEmail author
Article

Abstract

Molecular imprinted polymers on copper nanoparticle–decorated vinyl-functionalized graphene (CuNPs@GR-MIPs) are fabricated. The copper nanoparticles (CuNPs) are synthesized by the reduction of diaminopropane copper complexes (DAPCu) using sodium borohydride as reducing agent. The synthesized CuNPs are successfully decorated on vinyl-functionalized graphene (V-fGR) on which MIPs are fabricated. All intermediates during the synthesis of CuNPs@GR-MIP are characterized in detail by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction analysis, transmission electron microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy techniques. The fabricated CuNPs@GR-MIPs are developed as a sensor for organophosphorus pesticide parathion methyl. The recognition cavities formed on CuNPs@GR-MIP during the synthesis are mainly responsible for the sensing property. The result of the electrochemical studies shows that CuNPs@GR-MIP material has good recognition and sensing capacity towards parathion methyl (PM). The sensitivity is found to be directly proportional to the amount of PM molecules in solution with a detection limit of 0.24 × 10−9 mol L−1 (S/N = 3). The selectivity studies of the fabricated CuNPs@GR-MIP sensor give a fine discrimination between PM and its structurally similar compounds such as 2,4-dinitrophenol, nitrobenzene, nitroaniline, p-nitrophenol, ascorbic, dopamine acid, and malathion. Most promisingly, the sensing capacity of the synthesized CuNPs@GR-MIP is successfully demonstrated in vegetables and fruits which shows us the real time applicability of the sensor in food analysis.

Keywords

Parathion methyl Cyclic voltammetry Molecular imprinted polymer Graphene Copper nanoparticles 

Notes

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Dr. Sooraj M. .P declares that there is no conflict of interest. Dr. Beena Mathew declares that there is no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

Informed Consent

Not applicable.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Chemical SciencesMahatma Gandhi UniversityKottayamIndia
  2. 2.Advanced Molecular Materials Research CenterMahatma Gandhi UniversityKottayamIndia

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