Food Analytical Methods

, Volume 12, Issue 4, pp 869–876 | Cite as

Strong Enhancement of the Chemiluminescence of Hydrogen Sulfite-Oxidant Systems in the Presence of N,S-Doped Graphene Quantum Dots, and Its Application to the Determination of Folic Acid in Spinach and Kiwifruit Samples

  • Junmei Zhang
  • Suqin HanEmail author


The oxidation of bisulfite by classical oxidants such as hypochlorite, hydrogen peroxide, and permanganate is accompanied by weak chemiluminescence (CL). It is reported here that the CL is strongly enhanced in the presence of nitrogen/sulfur co-doped graphene quantum dots (N,S-GQD), nitrogen-doped graphene quantum dots (N-GQD), or graphene quantum dots (GQD). The weak CL of the NaHSO3-NaClO system and the NaHSO3-H2O2 system in the neutral medium and of the NaHSO3-KMnO4 system in acidic solution is more than 1000-fold enhanced in the presence of N,S-GQD, about sixfold in the presence of N-GQD, and twofold in the presence of GQD. Fluorescence spectra and CL spectra indicate that the N,S-GQD-sensitized enhancement originates from energy transfer and electron transfer annihilation effects on the CL system. It is also reported that folic acid (FA; vitamin B9) causes a notable diminution in the N,S-GQD-NaHSO3-NaClO system. Based on this finding, a sensitive CL method is developed for the determination of FA in food samples. The method works in the 0.5 to 70.0 μmol/L FA concentration range and the limit of detection is 78.0 nmol/L.


Chemiluminescence Nitrogen and sulfur co-doped graphene quantum dots Oxidants Sodium bisulfite Folic acid 


Funding Information

This work was financially supported by the Fundamental Research Fund (2018JCYJ12) and the Undergraduate Training Programs for Innovation and Entrepreneurship (2018CXCY10) of Modern College of Humanities and Sciences of Shanxi Normal University.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Junmei Zhang declares that there are no conflicts of interest. Suqin Han declares that there are no conflicts of interest.

Informed Consent

Not applicable.

Ethical Approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

Supplementary material

12161_2018_1419_MOESM1_ESM.doc (6.1 mb)
ESM 1 (DOC 6.06 mb)


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Chemistry and Material ScienceShanxi Normal UniversityLinfenPeople’s Republic of China

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